What is Classification • Grouping of items • Making subgroups • Arranging the groups, and the items within the groups
How can we classify books? • Size • Colour of cover • ? • ? • Subject
Why do we arrange books by subject? • To make it easy to find the information that a reader is looking for. • Classification brings together all books on the same subject, so all similar information is brought together
Why do we not arrange books on shelves according to author or title or year of publication or serial number? • Because that would not be useful for finding information
In Book Classification • We group the books according to the subjects, and arrange them on the shelves.
How will we group these books? • Take the list of books provided and suggest how you will group them in a library
Why Classification? • To organise Collection • Like subjects together • Separate unlike • To Retrieve Collection quickly • To manage Collection efficiently ( adding, withdrawal, stock checking, etc. ) • For future, situations like shift of location, merging library with other library.
Subjects • Science • Applied sciences and Technology • Social Sciences • History, Geography • Language and Literature • Philosophy, religion • Arts- Fine & decorative, performing • Sports and games
Now we have made the arrangement • If a person borrows a book, and returns it after a few days, how will we know where to put it back? • So we have a notation
Notation • Notation is a number or alphabets or symbols, which represents the subject of the book, E.g. 370 - Education • The notation has a built-in order of arrangement e.g. 350, 360, 370, 371, 372, …380… • So the notation shows where the book is kept on the shelf
A Classification Scheme • A classification scheme is a list of all subjects, arranged in groups • For each subject, a symbol/number is given, i.e. the notation
Popular Schemes Used • Books are classified using tools for book classification such as : • Dewey Decimal Classification • Library of Congress Classification • Universal Decimal Classification • Colon Classification, etc.
The Dewey Decimal Classification Scheme • Most popular book classification scheme in the world • Simple to understand • Makes it easy for users to find books • Regularly revised to add new subjects
Organization of DDC • Four Volumes • Vol. 1 Introduction and Tables • Vol. 2 000-500 Class • Vol. 3 600-900 Class • Vol. 4 Relative Index and Manual • 19th edition is in 3 volumes only
The Dewey Decimal Classification Scheme All subjects are divided into 10 main classes: • 000 Computer science, information & general works100 Philosophy & psychology200 Religion300 Social sciences400 Language500 Science600 Technology700 Arts & Recreation800 Literature900 History & Geography
Another example • 300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology310 Statistics320 Political science330 Economics340 Law350 Public administration & military science360 Social problems & social services370 Education380 Commerce, communications & transportation390 Customs, etiquette & folklore • 370 Education 371 School management; special education • 372 Elementary education • 373 Secondary education • 374 Adult education • 375 Curriculums • 376 No longer used—formerly Education of women • 377 No longer used—formerly Ethical education • 378 Higher education • 379 Government regulation, control, support
Dewey Numbers • Each number indicates the bigger classes to which the subject belongs • E.g. 500 – Science 540 – Chemistry 546 - Inorganic Chemistry 546.652 – Chemistry of Copper and its compounds
Decimal arrangement Arrange the following numbers: • 628. 9 • 628.1401 • 628.25 • 625. 82 • 625. 0115
How do you decide what is the subject of a book? • 1. See the title. But that is not enough. E.g. Animal Farm is not about Zoology or agriculture • 2. Look at the preface and contents • 3. If necessary look at the chapters
How to classify books using DDC • 1. Look carefully at the book and decide its subject • 2. Decide the subject group in which you will put the book. • 3. Select the most specific number for the subject of the book e.g. if the books is about monkeys, do not put it under Zoology, or mammals; look for the specific number for monkeys • 4. If necessary, use the index to the DDC
Where you will classify these…. • Butterfly • Indian politics • Ramayan in Marathi • “Shivaji the Great” • “Wings of Fire” • Calligraphy • Water • Dowry Prohibition
Temples of India • Marathi Dictionary • Electricity • ‘I Dare’ : Biography of Kiran Bedi • Export of Rice • Cooking • Rain • Rain water harvesting • Poems on Rain
Adding Tables • DDC 21st ed. has 7 tables • Table 1 is Standard Subdivision Table which is common for all classes, can be used throughout the schedule. • Table 2 to Table 7 are special table and should be used only when instructed in the schedule.
Adding Standard Subdivisions • 03 Dictionaries and Encyclopedia • 05 Journals and magazines • 07 Education and Research • 071 Education, study and teaching • 072 Research • 09 History of a subject, Person
Use of Summary given at individual Class • Dictionary of Library Science 020.1-.9 std. subdiv. Therefore, Final number will be 020.3 • Dictionary of Higher Education 378.001-.009 std. subdiv. Therefore Final number will be 378.003
How the books are shelved left-to-right, top-to-bottom That means you start at the left on the top shelf and move to the rightuntil the shelf ends.