Rice-WheatCropping System Prepared By: Kanwar Muhammad Raheel Mehboob Reg. No : 2008-ag-2139 Major : Agronomy University of Agricultutre Faisalabad
Contents: 1:Cropping system 2:History of Rice Wheat Cropping System 3:Rice wheat cropping system in Pakistan 4:Factor Affecting on Rice wheat cropping system 5:Improving Yield of Rice Wheat Cropping System 6:Scenario of Rice wheat cropping system in Pakistan
Cropping System A cropping system may be defined as a community of plants which is managed by a farm unit to achieve various human goals. A cropping system refers to growing a combination of crops in space and time. An ideal cropping system should : • use natural resources efficiently • provide stable and high returns • do not damage the environment
Commonly Practiced Cropping System are: • Crop rotation practices • Intercropping systems • Mixed cropping systems • Ratoon cropping Rice wheat cropping system is the type of crop rotation/pattern.
History of Rice Wheat cropping System: • The rice-wheat system has been practiced by farmers in Asia for more than 1000 years. It has since expanded and is currently estimated at 23.5 million ha. The rice-wheat system covers • 13.5 million ha in South Asia: • India (10.0 million ha), • Pakistan (2.2 million ha), • Bangladesh (0.8 million ha) • Nepal (0.5 million ha). It represents 32% of the total rice area and 42% of the total wheat area in these countries.
History of Rice Wheat cropping System: • In the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), which stretches across these four countries, rice is usually grown in the wet summer (May/June to October/ November) and wheat in the dry winter (November/ December to February/March). Although rice-wheat cropped area in the IGP is irrigated or has assured rainwater in sub-humid regions, the soils and crop management undergo drastic changes during the two cropping seasons.
Rice Wheat Cropping System in Pakistan • Rice-wheat is one of the important cropping systems covering an area of about 2.2 million hectares in Pakistan. A major portion (about 57 per cent) of the rice-wheat area falls in the Punjab. The rice-wheat growing areas in Pakistan are primarily situated in central Punjab (main districts include Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Narowal and Sialkot) followed by Sindh. The rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan is the major one with an estimated area of 2.2 mha
Rice Wheat Cropping System in Pakistan • Typically the Kallar belt is the genuine homeland of the ‘basmati’ variety. The pleasant and sweet fragrant basmati rice has the quality of elongation when cooked and the fluffiness that make it unique in the world. This particular basmati rice is found only in the Punjab .To grow more quality food from marginal/degraded land and diminishing water resources, there is a need to improve the productivity of rice-wheat system to make it more viable and eco-friendly.
Rice wheat cropping system in Pakistan • Rice nursery sowing (start after 20 may) • Transplantation (after 25-35 days) • Irrigation • Fertilization • Weed management • Harvesting
Wheat cropping in Pakistan • Land preparation • Seed selection & sowing • Irrigation • Fertilization • Weed management • Harvesting
Problems of Rice Wheat Cropping System • Time consuming • Delayed wheat sowing • Flood irrigation • Higher cost of • Labor • Water • Land preparation
Problems of Rice Wheat Cropping System • The rice-wheat system, one of the major cropping systems of the South Asia and parts of East Asia, requires special management. Rice grows well on puddled compacted soil, whereas wheat grows best on well-drained soils. The hardpan developed with puddling operation is important for water retention and weed control in rice, but compacted soil creates problems of water logging for wheat. In addition to this, the traditional land preparation after rice harvest results in later wheat sowing dates than optimum. Due to these management differences and traditional cultural cultivation practices, the productivity of the rice-wheat system is stagnating and its sustainability threatened.
Factor affecting yields of Rice and Wheat Cropping system • Delayed planting of wheat and Transplanting of Rice • Energy, labour and other input shortage • Resistance of the weed Phalaris minor to isoproturon; and crop residue burning have contributed to the stagnating or declining production, productivity and sustainability of this system. • Continuous cropping of rice-wheat system for several decades as well as contrasting edaphic needs of these two crops have resulted in increased pest pressure, nutrient mining.
Factor affecting yields of Rice and Wheat Cropping system • In many areas, yields have stagnated at below potential level. • The input use efficiency is low. • Soil organic matter content has reduced. This can be improved by incorporating crop residue into the soil. But burning of crop residue is common and has increased environment pollution. Nutrients are being mined and transported long distances and lost permanently for the sub region. The water table has receded at several places in the region. Also, there is a reduction in biodiversity due to large area coverage by a single cultivar.
Improving Yield of Rice Wheat Cropping System • Therefore, agronomic research related to rice-wheat system ecology and its environment must be directed at enhanced and sustained productivity of this important farming system at reduced costs. • This can only be possible if the planting techniques of rice or wheat crops are improved resulting to saving of time, cultivation cost and irrigation water. Resource conserving technologies (e.g. zero-tillage, bed planting or direct seeding of rice) can be helpful in the achievements of major goals.
Resource-conserving technologies • Resource-conserving technologies are defined here as any practice that improves the efficiency of use of natural resources, including water, air, fossil fuels, soils, & inputs.*Late planting is a major problem in most rice-wheat areas. To improve system productivity, the wheat crop must be planted at the optimal time.The other major cause of late wheat planting is the long turnaround time between rice harvest and wheat planting. Long turnaround can be caused by many factors, including excessive tillage, soil moisture problems (too wet or too dry), lack of animal or mechanical power for plowing, and the priority farmers place on threshing and handling the rice crop before preparing land for wheat.
Resource Conserving Technology • Surface Seeding; In this tillage option, wheat seed is placed onto a saturated soil surface without any land preparation. • Zero-Tillage with Inverted-T Openers; Another practice involves sowing using a seed drill, without prior land preparation. • Reduced Tillage; The Chinese have developed a seeder for their 12 horsepower, two-wheel diesel tractor that prepares the soil and plants the seed in one operation. This system consists of a shallow rotovator followed by a six-row seeding system and a roller for soil compaction.
Bed Planting System In bed planting systems, wheat or other crops are planted on raised beds. • Management of irrigation water is improved. • Bed planting facilitates irrigation before seeding and thus provides an opportunity for weed control prior to planting. • Plant stands are better. • Wheat seed rates are lower.
Scenario if Rice Wheat Cropping System in Pakistan • Wheat and rice are the major food staples for about 180 million people in Pakistan. • Wheat always occupies a central position in agricultural policies. At present, it contributes 13.8 per cent to value added agriculture and 3.2 per cent to GDP. Rice is a high value cash crop and is also a major export item. Rice grown in Pakistan comprises of two major groups: Basmati (high quality aromatic rice) and IRRI (coarse rice).It was observed that producers of wheat and basmati rice are dis-protected or implicitly taxed via depressed prices instead of their respective international prices.
Scenario if Rice Wheat Cropping System in Pakistan • An important conclusion is that farmers should receive price in line with international prices for their commodities to induce the expansion of these crops. • In wheat production the cost of domestic resources was 0.86 $ & for rice production 0.53 $ to save one dollar in terms of wheat imports, which also implies comparative advantage in wheat production as an import substitute. The result suggests that these commodities are likely to have a great production growth once distortion in output and input markets are removed and domestic prices catch up with international market prices.