environmental chemistry in civil engineering pertemuan 02 n.
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  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY IN CIVIL ENGINEERINGPERTEMUAN 02 Matakuliah : S0372 – Kimia Teknik Sipil Tahun : Ganjil 2007/2008

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Contamination of Environment. Contamination of water. Contamination of Air

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Environmental chemistry of science studying source, reaction of, transport, impact, chemical type fact in water , land; ground, and environmental air. • Aquatic chemistry. • Atmosphere chemistry. • Contamination of Air Occurence of Contamination of previous air : : London, England 1873, 1880, 1892 and December 1930. Dale of Meuse, Belgium 63 dying and 6000 pain of Okt.1948. Donora Pensylvania, 17 dying and 6000 pain. 5-9 Des. 1952 London, England 4000 dying. 3-6 January 1956 London, England 1000 dying. 2-5 Des. 1957 London, England 700-800 dying. 9 Jan-12 Feb 1963 New York, US 200-400 dying, and others. Example of and other occurence effect of usage of gasoline have lead (Pb) in improving octane number cause to health of adult and children

  4. Ozone (O3) • Ozone there are in atmosfir can be dangerous or to the advantage of health and life, depended to its height. • Ozone at height up to 15 km (low altitude) is conceived of ozone of troposfir is dangerous. This matter because ozone can form line reaction of difficult chemistry between nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon with existence of day sun. • Ozone represent mains compound of fog chemistry, and in one or two hour with fog on the air can yield to cough, respiration pain and heart function loss whereas, • Repetition of ozone presentation can cause at heart permanently or development of heart sickness of koronis like pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Water Resources. • Quality • Quantity • Chemical Chemical Parameter Water represent very good pelarut so that a lot of dissolve which can materialss in water. Chemical parameter quality of water : • pH. • Total Dissolve Essence • Alkalinitas • Metals, organic materials, nutrisi, and pesticide. Measurement of pH executed directly with equipments of conducted metre pH with measuring – logarithm [ H+]

  6. Total dissolve essence can know with measuring conductivity of sampel irrigate or with quantifying of especial ions content in water in set of mg / L. • Alkalinitas can be determined with volumetric use acid (H2SO4) as pentiter. • Metals in water determined its concentration with AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) or photometry flame for the K+ and Na+. • Organic Materials can be measured with GC (gas chromatography) or GC-MS. • Water nutrition sampel estimated with measurement of N, P & K in water of sampel. • Pesticide usually determined with GC (Chromatographi Gas).

  7. Contamination of water. • Effect of the happening of contamination of water by industry and its impact start to be felt by effect of events that happened for example disease of Minamata, Itai-Itai in Japan between year 1953 – 1960 • Contamination of thermal (water temperature) • Representing the make-up of temperature at water so that dissolve oxygen content in downhill water. • 0o content of O2 dissolve 15 ppm, 10o content of O2 dissolve 13 ppm, 20o content of O2 dissolve 9 ppm, and 30o content of O2 dissolve 7,5 ppm. • If content of O2 dissolve less than 3 ppm in water will cause fish in water cannot live. Obstetrical relation of Dissolve O2 in irrigate with BOD is 3 O2 ekivalen ppm by 1 BOD ppm. BOD relate to liquid waste able to come from housing, factory, office, shop and others. • Contamination of land;ground. • Example of effect of location and dismissal of waste, garbage, and poisonous and dangerous materials (B3) which disagree with environmental criterion and hidrologi and also usage of pesticide, herbicide, fungicide for agriculture.

  8. Cycle of Hidrologi. Stratification Lake. Aquaticof ekosistem. • Autotropik • Heterotropik Khlorofill+enzym 12 H2O + 6 CO2 + 709 kcal --------------------- C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O Enzim metabolik C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ----------------------- CO2 + H2O +energi Eutrofikasi Dissolve Dxygen (DO) Requirement of Biological oxygen (BOD) Cycle Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Oxygen Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Sulphur.

  9. CO2 di atmosfir Proses kimia dan stabilisasi Biodegradasi Karbon anorganik terlarut terutama (HCO3-) Fotosintesis Karbon organic terikat {CH2O} dan karbon Xenobiotic Pengendapan kimia dan penggabungan karbon mineral keladalm kulit organisme Pelarutan dengan CO2 terlarut Pabrik Xenobiotic dengan petroleum feedtock Proses biogeokimia Hidrokarbon fossil organic terikat, CxH2x dan kerogen Karbon anorganik tidak larut terutama CaCO3 dan CaCO3. MgCO3

  10. Atmosfir N2, N2O NO, NO2, HNO3, NH4NO3 Antrosfir NH3 , HNO3 , NO, NO2 Nitrat anorganik Senyawa Organonitrogen Biosfir Nitrogen ikatan biologi Sebagainitrogen amino (NH2) dalam protein Hidrosfir dan Geosfir NH4+, NO3- terlarut N Organik dalam biomasa mati dan bahan baker fossil

  11. Fosfat anorganik terlarut sebagai HPO42-, H2PO4-, dan polifosfat Pelarutan dan pengendapaan Assimilasi oleh organisme Limpasan pupuk, air limbah, limbah deterjen Biodegradasi Xenobioticorganofosfat Fosfat yang tidak larut seperti Ca5(OH)(PO4)3 atau Besi fosfat ATP dan ADP (asam nukleat) Biological, organic dan fosfat dalam sedimen