What is Motivation? • Motivation: A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
What is Motivation? • Motivation to Learn: “The meaningfulness, value, and benefits of academic tasks to the learner-regardless of whether or not they are intrinsically interesting.
Types of Motivation • Intrinsic Motivation: Participating in an activity “for its own sake”, for the enjoyment it provides, the learning it permits, or the feelings of accomplishment it evokes. (Mark Lepper 1988) • Extrinsic Motivation: Student performance “in order to obtain some reward, or avoid some punishment external to the activity itself”. (Lepper)
Which type of motivation is most effective in the classroom? • Highly debated topic! • Most educators would favor classroom strategies that promote intrinsic motivation. • Both types have weaknesses!
Extrinsic Motivation • Typically based on external punishments and rewards. • Grades, gold stars, treats, activities, teacher approval, remediation, being grounded, etc. • Reliance on factors external to the task and to the individual, consistently fails to produce any deep and long-lasting commitment to learning. (Kohn 1993)
Intrinsic Motivation • Based on subjective feelings of accomplishment, achievement, self-worth, and value. • “Intrinsic motivation is a concept that exists only in the context of the individual” (Kohn 1993) • The opportunities that are offered to teachers are often too radically individualized, too bland, or too abstract to be effectively applied to the classroom.
The Outcome of Each? • Intrinsically motivated students are more likely to persist at learning tasks that demand complex intellectual effort, logical reasoning, and decision-making strategies. • Extrinsically motivated students will typically put forth the minimal amount of effort necessary to get the maximal reward.
“Perhaps the tradition of separating extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is flawed”. (Lubart & Sternberg 1995) • In-depth examination of the work of highly motivated and creative people reveals a blend of both types of motivation. • Isn’t real-life a blend of both types of motivation?
What do Students Really Want? Students who are engaged in their work are energized by four goals: • Success • Curiosity • Originality • Satisfying Relationships
Characteristics of Disengaging Work • Repetitive. • Requires little thought. • Work that is forced upon a student without choice.
What are the Characteristics of Engaging Work? • Work that stimulates curiosity. • Allows students to express creativity. • Work in which a student feels competent.
How can teachers enhance student motivation? S.C.O.R.E. • Success: The need for mastery • Curiosity: The need for understanding • Originality: The need for self-expression • Relationships: The need for involvement with others. • Energy: The product of using the four goals to increase student motivation.
Convincing Kids They Can Succeed “Students want and need work that enables them to demonstrate and improve their sense of themselves as competent and successful human beings”. (Strong, Silver, & Robinson (1995) • Teachers should clearly articulate the criteria for success and provide clear, immediate, and constructive feedback. • Educators must model the skills necessary to be successful. • We must help students see success as a valuable aspect of their personalities.
“Success is not final, failure is not fatal: It is the courage to continue that counts”. Winston Churchill
Arousing Curiosity • Students want and need work that stimulates and awakens their curiosity and a desire for deep understanding.
What are the important factors to arousing curiosity in the classroom? • 1st: Provide information that is fragmentary or contradictory? What?
It is precisely the lack of organization of a body of information that compels us to understand it further. This is why puzzles and mystery’s capture our attention! • Text books are highly organized and rarely arouse student interest when used exclusively!
2nd: Classroom topics should relate to students personal lives. • The connection cannot be superficial; it should involve an issue or idea that is both manageable and unresolved. • We should ask, with what issues are adolescents/children wrestling, and how can we connect these issues to our curriculum.
Originality • Students both want and need work that allows them to express their autonomy and originality, allowing them to discover who they are, and who they want to be.
How much originality can a student express when completing the questions at the end of the chapter, day after day?
Encouraging Originality in the Classroom. • Design school programs that emphasize self-expression and not just technique. • Give all students an opportunity to display their talents to an audience, rather than just the most talented. FEEDBACK FOR ALL! • Avoid viewing creativity as simply “play” and maintain high standards for creative work. • Give students more choice. The medium, techniques, or methods they will use to convey their ideas. • Connect creative projects to students’ personal ideas and concerns.
“A students’ drive towards self-expression is ultimately a drive to produce work that is of value to others”. (Strong, Silver, Robinson. 1995)
Building Satisfying Relationships • Students want and need work that will enhance their relationships with people they care about. • People work hardest on relationships that are reciprocal. “What you have to offer is of value to me, and what I have to offer is of value to you”. • Unbalanced, nonreciprocal relationships fail to generate much energy or interest.
What is a students’ perception of a routine homework assignment? (A worksheet) • What is the relationship between the student and teacher in regards to this type of assignment? • Is this relationship balanced or unbalanced? • Is the relationship reciprocal?
The Solution? • Provide class work that is complimentary! • Assign group projects where each student contributes valuable information to achieve a common goal. • Give students educational roles that allow them to express their specific talents.
Orchestrating Classroom Performance • SCORE your own performance first! People value the four goals to different degrees in different situations. • Which of the four goals are most important to you? • How does this preference affect the way you run the classroom? • Recognize the impact you are, or are not having on student motivation.
Handouts • Strategies for Increasing Student Motivation • Motivating Students to Engage in Class Activities. • Getting the Most Out of Homework.
A Great Resource! Worksheets Don’t Grow Dendrites Marcia Tate
"If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.“ (John Quincy Adams)