CHAPTER 8 Viewing and Protecting Organizational Information
Learning Outcomes • Describe the roles and purposes of data warehouses and data marts • Compare and contrast the multidimensional nature of data warehouses (and data marts) with the two-dimensional nature of databases • Summarize the importance of ensuring the cleanliness of information throughout an organization • Define the relationship between backup and recovery • Illustrate the five characteristics of adaptable systems
Data Warehouse Fundamentals • Data warehouse • a logical collection of information – gathered from many different operational databases – that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks • The purpose: to aggregate information throughout an organization into a single repository for decision-making purposes • Data mart– contains a subset of data warehouse information • Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
Multidimensional Analysis andData Mining • Databases contain information in a series of two-dimensional tables • In a data warehouse and data mart, information is multidimensional, it contains layers of columns and rows • Dimension – a particular attribute of information • Cube – common term for the representation of multidimensional information
Multidimensional Analysis andData Mining • Data mining– the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone • Data-mining tools – use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information and infer rules from them that predict future behavior and guide decision making • Include query tools, reporting tools, multidimensional analysis tools, statistical tools, and intelligent agents Which employees are spending the most amount of money on long-distance phone calls Which customers are returning the most products
Information cleansing and scrubbing • a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information What would happen if the information contained in the data warehouse was only about 70 percent accurate? Would you use this information to make business decisions? Could an organization get to a 100% accuracy level on information contained in its data warehouse?
Keeping Business OperationsRunning Smoothly • Organizations must protect themselves from system failures and crashes • Three primary steps an organization can take to protect its systems: • Develop an appropriate backup and recovery strategy • Create a disaster recovery plan • Build adaptable business systems
Backup and Recovery Strategy • Backup – an exact copy of a system’s information • Recovery – the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup What would happen if your computer crashed right now and you couldn’t recovery any of their information?
Disaster Recovery Plan a detailed process for recovering information or an IT system in the event of a catastrophic disaster • Hot site – a separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business • Cold site – a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment, but is a place where employees can move after the disaster
Building Adaptable Systems • Flexibility – systems must meet all types of business changes • Scalability – refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands • Reliability – ensures all systems are functioning correctly and providing accurate information • Availability – addresses when systems can be accessed by employees, customers, and partners • Performance – measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction in terms of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and throughput
Opening Case Study Questions - Searching for Revenue - Google • Determine how Google could use a data warehouse to improve its business operations • Explain why Google would need to scrub and cleanse the information in its data warehouse • Identify a data mart that Google’s marketing and sales department might use to track and analyze its AdWords revenue • Describe the fundamentals of a disaster recovery plan along with a recommendation for a plan for Google • Describe why availability and scalability are critical to Google’s business operations