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It would take twice the amount of time. PowerPoint Presentation
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It would take twice the amount of time.

It would take twice the amount of time.

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It would take twice the amount of time.

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  1. Materials move through cells by diffusion. Oxygen and food move into cells, while waste products move out of cells. How does the size of a cell affect how efficiently materials get to all parts of a cell? Work with a partner to complete this activity 1. On a sheet of paper, make a drawing of a cell that has the following dimensions: 5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm. Your partner should draw another cell about one half the size of your cell on a separate sheet of paper. 2. Compare your drawings. How much longer do you think it would taketo get from the cell membrane to the center of the big cell than from the cell membrane to the center of the smaller cell? 3.What is the advantage of cells being small? It would take twice the amount of time. If cells are small, materials can be distributed to all parts of the cell quickly.

  2. Image from: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG Image by Riedell CELL GROWTH & DIVISION 10-1 & 10-2

  3. 2 Reasons why cells divide DNA OVERLOAD 1. _____________________As cell grows bigger demand on DNA“genetic library” becomes too great Ex: Small town library has 1000 books. As town grows and more people borrow books, there may be a waiting list to read the most popular titles http://www.adc.state.az.us/images/Off-Library.JPG

  4. 2 Reasons why cells divide Material exchange can’t keep up 2. _____________________As cell grows bigger demand for transport across membrane is too great http://www.animationlibrary.com

  5. Ability to transport of oxygen, food, waste across cell membrane depends on _______________ Need for these depends on ___________ SURFACE AREA CELL VOLUME As cell grows these DON’T increase at the same rate See relationshipbetween volume and SA

  6. Ratio of Surface Area to Volume in Cells Section 10-1 Cell Size Surface Area (length x width x 6) Volume (length x width x height) Ratio of Surface Area to Volume

  7. BIGGER CELLS NEED MORE FOOD and OXYGEN, but CAN’T TRANSPORT IT FAST ENOUGH or IN BIG ENOUGH QUANTITIES! http://www.animationlibrary.com

  8. Image from: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG Image by Riedell Multicellular organisms grow mainly by increasing cell number

  9. DNA CAN BE: SPREAD OUT INNON-DIVIDING CELLS SCRUNCHED UP IN DIVIDINGCELLS CHROMOSOMES CHROMATIN

  10. DNA in PROKARYOTES • BACTERIAL DNA is CIRCULAR • HAVE ONE CHROMOSOME • NO NUCLEUS; ATTACHED TO CELL MEMBRANE http://www.origin-life.gr.jp/3202/3202121/fig6.jpg

  11. DNA in EUKARYOTES(Plants & Animals) • DNA is ROD-SHAPED CHROMOSOMES • MANY PAIRS • FOUND IN NUCLEUS http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/chrom2.jpg

  12. Chromosome structure CHROMATIDS • ___________________ 2 identical arms • __________________ constricted area holds chromatids together CENTROMERE HOMOLOGOUS • __________________ PAIR • 2 of each chromosome(one from mom; one from dad)

  13. HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES • SAME SIZE • SAME SHAPE • CARRY GENES for the SAME TRAITS • BUT ______________! (Don’t have to have the SAME CHOICES) NOT IDENTICAL http://arnica.csustan.edu/biol3020/cell_division/cell_division.htm http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm

  14. CELL DIVISION in PROKARYOTES Bacteria reproduce using __________________________________ BINARY FISSION http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/mitosis/fission.jpg

  15. CELL CYCLE ______________ =series of events that cells go through as they grow and develop cells alive cell cycle

  16. CELL CYCLE INTERPHASE – non-dividing phase G1- Grow bigger Cell is “doing its job” DNA is spread out as chromatin S - Synthesis (copy DNA) & chromosomal proteins G2- Grow bigger, make organelles & molecules needed for cell division

  17. CELL DIVISION MITOSIS – Nuclear division Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis – Cytoplasm divides G0 – cell stops dividing (Ex: nerve cell)

  18. Figure 10–4 The Cell Cycle Section 10-2 G1 phase M phase S phase G2 phase

  19. In between divisionsCells are in this phase most of the time Can see nucleus DNA spread out as chromatin Can’t see chromosomes DNA gets copied (S) Cell gets ready to divide INTERPHASE (G1 - S - G2)

  20. Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall PROPHASE 1st dividing phase http://www.life.uiuc.edu/plantbio/102/lectures/08mit&veg102.html DNA scrunches into chromosomes Centrioles appear in centrosome region & move to poles Nuclear membrane & nucleolus disappear Spindle fibers form & attach to chromosomes

  21. CENTROSOME ________ region organizes spindle Spindle MICROTUBULES are part of cytoskeleton http://www.coleharbourhigh.ednet.ns.ca/library/organelle_worksheet.htm

  22. Chromosomes line up in ___________ middle METAPHASE Images from:Pearson Eduction Ince; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0247.JPG

  23. Centromeres splitCentrioles pull chromatids_______ apart ANAPHASE Images from:Pearson Eduction Ince; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0247.JPG

  24. two See ______ nuclei Nuclear membrane & nucleolus return TELOPHASE (reverse prophase steps) Chromosomes spread out as chromatin Centrioles disappear Spindle fibers disappear Images from:Pearson Eduction Ince; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall http://www2.bc.cc.ca.us/cnewton/Biology%2011/Mitosis.html

  25. CYTOKINESIS Cytoplasm splits into 2 cells ANIMAL CELLS pinch cytoplasm in two with a ______________________ CLEAVAGE FURROW

  26. CYTOKINESIS Cytoplasm splits into 2 cells PLANT CELLS can’t pinch because they have a sturdy ____________ Plant cells separate cytoplasm by growing a _______________ down the middle. CELL WALL CELL PLATE http://www.eastcentral.edu/acad/depts/BI/plant_mitosis_nolabels.html

  27. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Section 10-2 Spindle forming Centrioles Centromere Chromatin Centriole Nuclear envelope Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Interphase Prophase Spindle Cytokinesis Centriole Metaphase Individual chromosomes Telophase Anaphase Nuclear envelope reforming

  28. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Section 10-2 Spindle forming Centrioles Centromere Chromatin Centriole Nuclear envelope Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Interphase Prophase Spindle Cytokinesis Centriole Metaphase Individual chromosomes Telophase Anaphase Nuclear envelope reforming

  29. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Section 10-2 Spindle forming Centrioles Centromere Chromatin Centriole Nuclear envelope Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Interphase Prophase Spindle Cytokinesis Centriole Metaphase Individual chromosomes Telophase Anaphase Nuclear envelope reforming

  30. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Section 10-2 Spindle forming Centrioles Centromere Chromatin Centriole Nuclear envelope Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Interphase Prophase Spindle Cytokinesis Centriole Metaphase Individual chromosomes Telophase Anaphase Nuclear envelope reforming

  31. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Section 10-2 Spindle forming Centrioles Centromere Chromatin Centriole Nuclear envelope Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Interphase Prophase Spindle Cytokinesis Centriole Metaphase Individual chromosomes Telophase Anaphase Nuclear envelope reforming

  32. Figure 10–5 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Section 10-2 Spindle forming Centrioles Centromere Chromatin Centriole Nuclear envelope Chromosomes (paired chromatids) Interphase Prophase Spindle Cytokinesis Centriole Metaphase Individual chromosomes Telophase Anaphase Nuclear envelope reforming

  33. Videos Animal Cell Mitosis Animal Cell Cytokinesis

  34. Concept Map Section 10-2 Cell Cycle includes is divided into is divided into

  35. M phase (Mitosis) Interphase G1 phase S phase G2 phase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Concept Map Section 10-2 Cell Cycle includes is divided into is divided into

  36. SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells. • Transport (ANALYSIS) cell membranes, homeostasis • Cell life cycles (ANALYSIS) Examples: somatic cells (mitosis)

  37. Core High School Life SciencePerformance Descriptors