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Improving Police-Community Relations Through Community Policing

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  1. Improving Police-Community Relations Through Community Policing National Crime Prevention Council 2007–2008

  2. Goal of This Presentation To help participants understand how relations between the community and law enforcement can be strengthened through community policing strategies National Crime Prevention Council

  3. Objectives • Define community policing and its principles • Describe the benefits and the importance of citizen involvement • Identify strategies for effective communication • Identify the six factors for improving police community relations • Describe the benefits of Neighborhood Watch National Crime Prevention Council

  4. Crime Prevention As a Bridge • Crime Prevention efforts reduce polarization that sometimes exists between police and citizens. • Community Policing, Neighborhood Watch, Orange Hat Patrols, Weed and Seed, and McGruff programs build a bridge that enables residents and law enforcement to communicate, collaborate, and work together to build safer, more caring communities. National Crime Prevention Council

  5. The Benefits of Improved Police-Community Relations Improved Relations Allow Police Officers to • Police more effectively • Find their jobs safer and easier to do • Face less litigation and gain longer careers • Be treated with greater respect • Have better morale National Crime Prevention Council

  6. The Benefits of Improved Police-Community Relations(continued) Improved Relations Allow Community Residents to • Have more trust and less fear of police • Have a safer community • Have less tension and conflict • Gain greater cooperation from police • Gain increased safety for children and seniors • Gain quicker resolution to crime National Crime Prevention Council

  7. A Bit of HistoryCommunity Policing National Crime Prevention Council

  8. Are his principles of policing still applicable today? Absolutely! Sir Robert PeelConsidered a “father” of law enforcement National Crime Prevention Council

  9. Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing 1. The basic mission of the police is to prevent crime and disorder. 2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions. 3. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public. 4.The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionally to the necessity of the use of force. National Crime Prevention Council

  10. Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing (continued) 5. Police seek and preserve public favor. 6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary. 7. Police at all times should maintain a relationship with the public. 8. Police should always direct their actions strictly toward their functions. 9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder. National Crime Prevention Council

  11. Community Policing “Community policing is a philosophy that promotes and supports organizational strategies to address the causes of crime, to reduce the fear of crime and social disorder through problem-solving tactics and community-police partnerships.” Source: Community Oriented Policing Services Office National Crime Prevention Council

  12. The Eight “P”s of Community Policing A PHILOSOPHY of full service, PERSONALIZED POLICING, where the same officer PATROLS and works in the same area on a PERMANENT basis, from a decentralized PLACE, working in PARTNERSHIP with citizens to identify and solve PROBLEMS National Crime Prevention Council

  13. Community Policing The community-policing philosophy rests on the belief that law-abiding citizens in the community have a responsibility to participate in the police process. It also rests on the belief that solutions to today’s contemporary community problems demand freeing both community residents and law enforcement to explore creative ways to address neighborhood concerns beyond a narrow focus on individual crimes. National Crime Prevention Council

  14. The more the various groups share common values, beliefs, and goals, the more likely it is that they will agree on common goals. Most people are of good will. Normative Sponsorship Theory • They will cooperate with others to facilitate • the building of consensus. National Crime Prevention Council

  15. Critical Social Theory • Enlightenment Give information • Empowerment • Take action to improve conditions • Emancipation • People can achieve through social action National Crime Prevention Council

  16. Community Relationships Provide • Worth in social value • A more informed citizenry • Example to young people and others • Added value • Opportunity to learn about law enforcement while working with law enforcement • Learning about citizens’ concerns National Crime Prevention Council

  17. How Do People View the Police? National Crime Prevention Council

  18. Agencies Opening Their Doors to Citizens Through Citizen Police Academies • Why is it important? • Who can it benefit? National Crime Prevention Council

  19. Philosophy of the Citizens’ Police Academy • Agency size and demographics can sometimes create barriers between the police and those they serve. • Community policing is paramount to the effectiveness of crime reduction. • Police image: There are many misconceptions to dispel. National Crime Prevention Council

  20. Community Police Business Schools Government Youth Philosophy of the Citizens’ Police Academy (continued) Who Will Benefit From It? EVERYONE! National Crime Prevention Council

  21. Improved cooperation Less apathy Reduction in crime Reduction in fear of crime Better communications Improved police image Clear understanding Philosophy of the Citizens’ Police Academy (continued) What They Can Accomplish National Crime Prevention Council

  22. Volunteers in Police Service Volunteers in Police Service (VIPS) Provides support for resource-constrained police departments by incorporating civilian volunteers so that law enforcement professionals have more time for frontline duty Website www.policevolunteers.org National Crime Prevention Council

  23. Volunteers in Police Service (continued) • Foundations of the VIPS Program • 2002 Presidential initiative • Department of Justice and IACP responsibilities • Concept • Volunteers from the community • Expanding law enforcement to the community National Crime Prevention Council

  24. Volunteers in Police Service (continued) • Why they are needed • Ease demands on law enforcement • Encourage a more informed citizenry • Provide an example to young people • Improve cooperation and understanding between the police and their community National Crime Prevention Council

  25. Considerations of Community Interaction • How community volunteers can be used within their community • Legal issues • Safety issues • Expertise issues National Crime Prevention Council

  26. Community/Police Needs and Support • Filling needs with volunteers • Coordinating position • Prerecruitment action required • Role of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) • Match volunteers to the organization’s strategic plan • Possible volunteer positions (adapt to local needs) National Crime Prevention Council

  27. Recruiting and Marketing • Recruitment strategy • Who is your target? • Develop a plan • Recognize important existing networks and tap into • Churches, PTAs, community councils, Kiwanis, Rotarians, etc. • Elementary and secondary schools • Youth, courts, citizens’ police academies National Crime Prevention Council

  28. Recruiting and Marketing (continued) • Develop organizational marketing materials • Websites • Brochures • Fliers/handouts/fact sheets • Store window posters • Ads in local papers • Cable channel access National Crime Prevention Council

  29. Recruiting and Marketing (continued) • Media assistance • Public service announcements • News releases • Prerecruitment strategy • Secure top management buy-in • Develop organization marketing materials National Crime Prevention Council

  30. What Does a Citizen Need To Know Before Volunteering? • Position description • Time commitment • Defined program activities • Direct supervisor • Website access for personal record of service/journal • How long should volunteers serve? • Age criteria • Citizens’ police academy attendance prior to service National Crime Prevention Council

  31. Police Agency Management and Administrative Issues • Agency mission, objectives, and goals • Define the agency’s mission, objectives, and goals • Define concepts and political considerations for volunteers • Define objectives and goals within the agency’s mission for volunteers • Define clear and specific department guidelines for volunteers National Crime Prevention Council

  32. VIPS Management and Administrative Issues • Develop a prerecruitment strategy according to the Volunteers in Police Service’s goal to help resource-constrained agencies • Internal management responsibilities • External management responsibilities • Who can manage the program • Training issues • Liability issues • Funding issues National Crime Prevention Council

  33. Strategies for Effective Communication National Crime Prevention Council

  34. Trust Building Model GREATER SUCCESS ! GREATER FLEXIBILITY AND RANGE OF SOLUTIONS RELATIONSHIP AND PARTNERSHIP BUILDING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TRUST National Crime Prevention Council

  35. The Communication Process • Message cues • Listener supplies meaning • Content • Relate to your audience; build rapport National Crime Prevention Council

  36. The Communication Process (continued) • One-way or two-way communication • Consider verbal and nonverbal cues • Physical appearance • Solicit student engagement and participation by using open-ended questions and feedback. National Crime Prevention Council

  37. Facial expression Tone of voice Eye contact Touch Personal space Territoriality Time Nonverbal Communication Considerations National Crime Prevention Council

  38. Building Trust Through Effective Communication • Effective Listening • Listen to learn and understand, not to challenge or persuade. • Take turns and listen for facts and feelings. (Both are important.) National Crime Prevention Council

  39. Six Factors Necessary To Improve Police-Community Relations National Crime Prevention Council

  40. The Six Factors • Membership • Environment • Process and Structure • Communications • Purpose • Resources National Crime Prevention Council

  41. Membership • Appropriate cross-section of members • Mutual respect, understanding, and trust • Members see that collaboration is in their best interest. • Members develop an ability to compromise. National Crime Prevention Council

  42. Environment • Political and social climate are favorable. • Collaborative group is viewed as a leader in the community. • There is a history or evidence of collaboration or cooperation in the community. National Crime Prevention Council

  43. Process and Structure • Members are invested in the process as well as the outcome. • Clear roles and responsibilities • Flexibility • Adaptability • Equal decision-making authority is held by each member regardless of rank, authority, or place in the hierarchy. National Crime Prevention Council

  44. Communication • Members learn to listen and allow venting. • There is open and frequent communication. • Members disclose self interest at first meeting. • Members establish informal and formal means of communication. National Crime Prevention Council

  45. Purpose • Concrete, attainable goals and objectives • Shared vision • Desired results and strategies National Crime Prevention Council

  46. Resources • A skilled and unbiased convener of meetings • Staff time and volunteer time • Sufficient funds National Crime Prevention Council

  47. Crime in Your Neighborhood A lack of community involvement may lead to some of the most serious and perplexing problems your community faces.

  48. Why Is Community Involvement Important? • When members of a community are involved with each other, they know • Their neighbors • The daily “goings-on” in the neighborhood • When something is wrong National Crime Prevention Council

  49. One great way to perpetuate community involvement is through the Neighborhood Watch program. National Crime Prevention Council

  50. What Is the Neighborhood Watch Program? • Neighborhood Watch was established in 1970 to bring residents together to interact and become the guardians for the police in their community. National Crime Prevention Council