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Improving Police - Community Relations through Community Policing

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  1. Improving Police - Community Relations through Community Policing National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  2. Objectives • Define community policing and its principles • Describe the benefits and the importance of citizen involvement • Identify strategies for effective communication • Identify the six factors for improving police community relations • Describe the benefits of Neighborhood Watch National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  3. Crime Prevention as a Bridge • Crime Prevention efforts reduce polarization that sometimes exists between police and citizens. • Community Policing, Neighborhood Watch, Orange Hat Patrols, Weed & Seed, and McGruff programs build a bridge that enables residents and law enforcement to communicate, collaborate, and work together to build safer, more caring communities. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  4. Community Policing • “A policing philosophy that promotes and supports organizational strategies to address the causes of crime, to reduce the fear of crime and social disorder through problem-solving tactics and community-police partnerships.” • - Community Oriented Policing • Services Office National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  5. The 8 “P”s of Community Policing A PHILOSOPHY of full service, PERSONALIZED POLICING, where the same officer PATROLS and works in the same area on a PERMANENT basis, from a decentralized PLACE, working in PARTNERSHIP with citizens to identify and solve PROBLEMS. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  6. Community Policing The philosophy rests on the belief that law-abiding citizens in the community have the responsibility to participate in the police process. It also rests on the belief that solutions to today’s contemporary community problems demand freeing both community residents and law enforcement to explore creative ways to address neighborhood concerns beyond a narrow focus on individual crimes. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  7. Are his principles of policing still applicable today? Absolutely! Sir Robert PeelConsidered a “father” of law enforcement National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  8. Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing 1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. 2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions. 3. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  9. Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing (cont.) 4.The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionally to the necessity of the use of force. 5. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. 6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the expertise of persuasion, advice, and warning is found to be insufficient. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  10. Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing (cont.) 7. Police at all time should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition; the police are public and the public are the police. The police being only full-time individuals charged with the duties that are incumbent on all of the citizens. 8. Police should always direct their actions strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary. 9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  11. The more the various groups share common values, beliefs, and goals, the more likely it is that they will agree on common goals. Most people are of good will. Normative Sponsorship Theory • They will cooperate with others to facilitate • the building of consensus. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  12. Critical Social Theory • Enlightenment-Give information • Empowerment-Take action to improve conditions • Emancipation-People can achieve through social action National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  13. Community relationships provide • Worth in social value • A more informed citizenry • Example to young people and others • Added value • Opportunity to learn about law enforcement while working with law enforcement • Learning about citizens’ concerns National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  14. How Do People View the Police? National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  15. Agencies Opening Their Doors to Citizens through Citizen Police Academies… • Why can it be important? • Who can it benefit? National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  16. Philosophy of the Citizen Police Academy • Agency size and demographics can sometimes create barriers between the police and those they serve. • Community policing is paramount to the effectiveness of crime reduction. • Police Image – There are many misconceptions to dispel. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  17. Community Police Business Schools Government Youth Philosophy of the Citizen Police Academy (cont.) Who Will Benefit from It? EVERYONE! National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  18. Improved Cooperation Less Apathy Reduction in Crime Reduction in Fear of Crime Better Communications Improved Police Image Clear Understanding Philosophy of the Citizen Police Academy (cont.) What They Accomplish National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  19. Introduction to Volunteers in Police Service • Foundations of the VIPS Program • 2002 Presidential initiative • Department of Justice and IACP responsibilities • Concept • Volunteers from the community • Expanding law enforcement to the community National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  20. Volunteers in Police Service (cont.) • Why they are needed • Ease demands on law enforcement • Encourage a more informed citizenry • Provide an example to young people • Improve cooperation and understanding between the police and their community National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  21. Considerationsof Community Interaction • How community volunteers can be used within their community • Legal issues • Safety issues • Expertise issues National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  22. Community/Police Needs and Support • Filling needs with volunteers • Coordinating position • Prerecruitment action required • Role of the International Association of Chiefs of Police • Match volunteers to the organization’s strategic plan • Possible volunteer positions (adapt to local needs) National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  23. Recruiting and Marketing • Recruitment strategy • Who is your target? • Develop a plan • Recognize important existing networks and tap in • Churches, PTAs, community councils, Kiwanis, Rotarians, etc. • Elementary and secondary schools • Youth, courts, citizen police academies National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  24. Recruiting and Marketing (cont.) • Develop organizational marketing materials • Websites • Brochures • Fliers/handouts/fact sheets • Store window posters • Ads in local papers • Cable channel access National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  25. Recruiting and Marketing (cont.) • Media assistance • Public service announcements • News releases • Prerecruitment strategy • Secure top management buy-in • Develop organization marketing materials National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  26. What does a citizen need to know before volunteering? • Position description • Time commitment • Defined program activities • Direct supervisor • Website access for personal record of service/journal • How long should volunteers serve? • Age criteria • Citizen police academy attendance prior to service National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  27. Police Agency Management and Administrative Issues • Agency mission, objectives, and goals • Define the agency’s mission, objectives, and goals • Volunteer concept and political consideration • Volunteer objectives and goals within agency mission • Clear and specific department guidelines for volunteers National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  28. VIPS Management and Administrative Issues • Develop a prerecruitment strategy according to the VIPS’ goal to help resource-constrained agencies • Internal management responsibilities • External management responsibilities • Who can manage the program • Training issues • Liability issues • Funding issues National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  29. Strategies for Effective Communication National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  30. Trust Building Model GREATER SUCCESS ! GREATER FLEXIBILITY AND RANGE OF SOLUTIONS RELATIONSHIP AND PARTNERSHIP BUILDING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION TRUST National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  31. The Communication Process • Message cues • Listener supplies meaning • Content • Relate to your audience/build rapport National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  32. The Communication Process (cont.) • One-way or two-way communication • Verbal/nonverbal cues • Physical appearance • Solicit student engagement and participation by using open-ended questions and feedback. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  33. Facial expression Tone of voice Eye contact Touch Personal space Territoriality Time Nonverbal Communication Considerations National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  34. Building Trust Through Effective Communication Effective Listening Listen to learn and understand, not to challenge or persuade. Take turns and listen for FACTS and FEELINGS. (Both are important.) National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  35. Six Factors Necessary To Improve Police-Community Relations National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  36. The Six Factors • Membership • Environment • Process/Structure • Communications • Purpose • Resources National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  37. Membership • Appropriate cross-section of members • Mutual respect, understanding, and trust • Members see that collaboration is in their best interest. • Members develop an ability to compromise. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  38. Environment • Political and social climate are favorable. • Collaborative group is viewed as a leader in the community. • There is a history or evidence of collaboration or cooperation in the community. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  39. Process/Structure • Members are invested in the process as well as the outcome. • Clear roles and responsibilities • Flexibility • Adaptability • Equal decision-making authority is held by each member regardless of rank, authority, or place in the hierarchy. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  40. Communication • Members learn to listen and allow venting. • There is open and frequent communication. • Members disclose self-interest at first meeting. • Members establish informal and formal means of communication. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  41. Purpose • Concrete, attainable goals and objectives • Shared vision • Desired results and strategies National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  42. Resources • A skilled and unbiased convener • Staff time and volunteer time • Sufficient funds National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  43. CRIME IN YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD A lack of community involvement may lead to some of the most serious and perplexing problems your community faces.

  44. Why is Community Involvement Important? When members of a community are involved with each other, they know • Their neighbors • The daily “goings-on” in the neighborhood • When something is wrong National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  45. One great way to perpetuate community involvement is through the Neighborhood Watch program National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  46. What is the Neighborhood Watch program? • Neighborhood Watch was established in 1970 to bring residents together to interact and become the guardians for the police in their community. National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  47. Neighborhood Watch • Crime prevention group organized around a block,defined neighborhood, or business district • Serves as “eyes and ears” for law enforcement • Helps establish/reclaim informal control of an area by observation, visibility, and increased social interaction • Donates time and resources • Usually has no formal budget or funding source • Success results in reduction in crime and improved quality of life for neighborhood residents National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  48. The Benefits of Neighborhood Watch Studies show Neighborhood Watch is effective because it • Brings neighbors together around a common cause – safety and security • Provides basic skills to all members on preventing crime and reporting suspicious activity or crimes • Builds a base for action to correct neighborhood problems • Works well with other civic associations National Crime Prevention Council 2006

  49. Additional Citizen Actions Discuss your community’s overall security, including lighting, and contact neighbors or the proper authorities to request necessary improvements. Contact your local law enforcement agency and work with it to discuss basic community modifications that may overcome current problems.

  50. Are state crime prevention associations and Neighborhood Watch programs involved in community policing and homeland security? Absolutely! As citizens, we all share the responsibility for reporting and preventing terrorism in our communities. We can be alert and aware of those activities in our neighborhood that may have links to terrorist and criminal behavior. National Crime Prevention Council 2006