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Maintaining academic integrity in online courses

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  1. Maintaining academic integrity in online courses Clint Brooks, M.Ed. NorthWest Arkansas Community College

  2. Academic Dishonesty and Academic Integrity

  3. “…acts which may subvert or compromise the integrity of the educational process” (NWACC, 2006, 154) What is Academic Dishonesty?

  4. Includes: “Copying from another student’s paper during an examination.” “Plagiarism” “Substituting for another person …to take an examination” (NWACC, 2006, 154) What is Academic Dishonesty?

  5. “…two out of three students admitted to having engaged in at least one of 14 questionable academic behaviors” (McCabe & Trevino, 1996) Why is Academic Integrity so important?

  6. “70 percent of students at the schools admitted to (test cheating)” (McCabe & Trevino, 1996) Why is Academic Integrity so important?

  7. Institutional integrity Ethical integrity of students Professional integrity of disciplines Why is Academic Integrity so important?

  8. “…both students and faculty believe it is easier to cheat in a distancelearning class, …” (Kennedy, et. al.; 2000) Academic Integrity and Distance Learning

  9. 40% admit to helping other students with online exams. Only 13.7% admit to helping other students during lecture exams. (Lanier, 2006, 253) Academic Integrity and Distance Learning

  10. Approaches to Addressing Academic Dishonesty

  11. “When examinations are employed … they take place in circumstances that include firm student identification.” (CIHE, 13) CIHE (Commission on Institutions of Higher Education) DL Best Practices

  12. “The institution otherwise seeks to assure the integrity of student work.” (CIHE, 13) CIHE (Commission on Institutions of Higher Education) DL Best Practices

  13. Faculty Reporting “Grading Sanctions” “Admonition or Probation” “Suspension or Expulsion” (NWACC, 2006, 155) Institutional Approaches to Academic Dishonesty

  14. Fear of harming students’ careers “perceptions of complicated disciplinary processes,” “confronting and reporting student cheating” “These factors may lead faculty to ignore or side-step student cheating,” (Bertram Gallant and Drinan, 2006, p. 845) Do no harm

  15. Proctoring Picture identification Signed confirmation Time limits These tactics are not negative, in and of themselves Control, Identify, Monitor

  16. Honor Codes Student and Faculty Responsibilities 10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela, 2004, 12-14) Prevention and Student Ethical Responsibility

  17. Recognize and affirm academic integrity as a core institutional value. Foster a lifelong commitment to learning. Affirm the role of teacher as guide and mentor. 10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela)

  18. Help students understand the potential of the Internet--and how that potential can be lost if online resources are used for fraud, theft, and deception. 10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela)

  19. Encourage student responsibility for academic integrity. Clarify expectations for students. Develop fair and creative forms of assessment. 10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela)

  20. Reduce opportunities to engage in academic dishonesty. Respond to academic dishonesty when it occurs. Help define and support campus-wide academic-integrity standards. 10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela)

  21. Practical Approaches to a Prevention-Based Approach

  22. Identifiable via searches Identifiable via style and consistency Writing

  23. “Many websites provide written papers including http://www.schoolsucks.com and http://www.cheathouse.com.” (Lanier, 2006, 247) “AllFreeEssays.com … Asian Grade … School Sucks …TermPaperGenie…” (Weisbard, 2007) Writing – The Challenge

  24. most universities will have sizable amounts of plagiarism occurring in their subjects using electronic means to download text from the internet. (O’Connor, 2003) Writing – Identifying via Searching

  25. It is suspected that this is the tip of the iceberg in that any copying from textbooks is, at this time, unable to be detected (O’Connor, 2003) Writing – Identifying via Searching

  26. Services Turnitin.com Controversies Presumption of guilt Copyright of student papers Writing – Identifying via Searching

  27. Other search options: Google Yahoo Ebscohost Writing – Identifying via Searching

  28. “Inconsistent writing style” “Use of language” “Datedness” “Repetition” (University of Tasmania, 2006) Writing – Identifying via Style and Consistency

  29. Use students regular writing as a benchmark for their formal writing Have students write as often as is practical and fair Writing – Identifying via Style and Consistency

  30. Web-based projects Multimedia projects Mailed projects Experiential projects Project-based Assessment

  31. “With project-based assessment, the dangers … are diminished the more individually the project is tailored to the resources used in the course, the student's individual interests, and the use of intermittent ‘checkpoints’” (Abbott, et. al., 2000) Project-based Assessment

  32. “These methods constitute very powerful means of developing generic skills required by employers such as oral and written communication skills, group management and the ability to evaluate written and oral presentations critically.” (Hargreaves, 1997) Collaborative Assessment

  33. Time Attempts Randomization Proctoring (including off-site proctoring: NCTA – National College Testing Association - http://www.ncta-testing.org/cctc/) Online Testing Conditions

  34. Vary assessment methods Gear assessments to subject matter and discipline Individualize assessments Other

  35. How does Blackboard CE (WebCT) Help Maintain Academic Integrity?

  36. Assignments Blackboard CE (4.1)

  37. Assignments Clarifies expectations Opportunity for written or project based assessment Opportunity for experiential assessment Blackboard CE (4.1)

  38. Discussions Blackboard CE (4.1)

  39. Discussions Opportunity for regular student writing Teacher as guide and mentor Collaborative environment Blackboard CE (4.1)

  40. E-Mail Blackboard CE (4.1)

  41. E-Mail Opportunity for regular student writing Teacher as guide and mentor Individualized interaction Blackboard CE (4.1)

  42. Quiz Tool Blackboard CE (4.1)

  43. Quiz Tool Time Limits Selective Release Multiple Attempts Randomization Security Blackboard CE (4.1)

  44. Presentations/Web pages Blackboard CE (4.1)

  45. Presentations/Web pages Opportunity for creative assessment Opportunity for collaborative assessment Opportunity for experiential assessment Opportunity for project based assessment Blackboard CE (4.1)

  46. Conclusion and Questions

  47. Abbott, Lynda, Siskovic, Holly, Nogues, Val, and Williams, Joanne G. “Learner Assessment in Multimedia Instruction: Considerations for the Instructional Designer.” 2000. < http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/SITEentry3223.html>. Betram Gallant, Tricia, and Drinan, Patrick. “Organizational Theory and Student Cheating: Explanation, Responses, and Strategies.”Journal of Higher Education. Vol. 77 Issue 5 (Sep/Oct 2006): 839-860 References

  48. CIHE (Commission on Institutions of Higher Education). Best Practices for Electronically Offered Degree and Certificate Programs. 13 Grijalva, Therese C., Nowell, Clifford, and Kerkvliet, Joe. “Academic Honesty and Online Courses.” College Student Journal. Vol. 40 Issue 1 (Mar 2006): 180-185 Hargreaves, D.J. “Student learning and assessment are inextricably linked.” European Journal of Engineering Education; Vol. 22 Issue 4 (Dec 1997): p401, 9p References

  49. Kennedy, Kristen, Nowak, Sheri, Raghuraman, Renuka, Thomas, Jennifer, and Davis, Stephen F. “ACADEMIC DISHONESTY AND DISTANCELEARNING: STUDENT AND FACULTY VIEWS.”College Student Journal. Vol. 34 Issue 2 (June 2000): 309, 6p Lanier, Mark M. “Academic Integrity and Distance Learning*.” Journal of Criminal Justice Education; Vol. 17 Issue 2, (Sep 2006): 244-261 References

  50. McCabe, Donald L., Trevino Linda Klebe. “What we know about cheating in college.” Change; Vol. 28 Issue 1 (Jan/Feb 1996): 28. McCabe, Donald L., Trevino Linda Klebe. “Ten [Updated] Principles of AcademicIntegrity: How Faculty Can Foster Student Honesty.” Change; Vol. 36 Issue 3 (May/June 2004): 12-14. NorthWest Arkansas Community College. “Academic Dishonesty.” NorthWest Arkansas Community College Catalog; 2006. 154-155 References