respiratory system n.
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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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  1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

  2. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS • Gas Exchange • Filter, Warm & Humidify Air • Protection • Speech • Regulate pH

  3. RESPIRATORY SYTEM ORGANIZATION • Upper Respiratory Tract (Outside Thorax) • Nose • Pharynx • Lower Respiratory Tract (Inside Thorax) • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchial Tree • Lungs

  4. UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT • Nose • External Nares (Entrance) • Nasal Cavity • Hairs, Mucus (Trap Debris) • Mucosa (Warm, Moisten) • Cilia (Transport) • Nasal Conchae Bones (Turbulence) • Olfactory Receptors • Tear Drainage

  5. UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued • Paranasal Sinuses (4) • Spaces in Bone • Lined with Mucous Membrane • Empty into Nasal Cavity • Light Bone, Resonation • Internal Nares (Opening between Nasal Cavity & Nasopharynx)

  6. UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued • Pharynx (Throat) • Between Nasal Cavity & Larynx • Passageway for Air & Food • 3 Divisions: • Nasopharynx (Internal Nares  Soft Palate) • Oropharynx (Soft Palate  Base of Tongue) • Laryngopharynx (Base of Tongue  Opening to Esophagus)

  7. UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued • Protected by Tonsils: • Pharyngeal Tonsil (“Adenoids”, Nasopharynx) • Tubal Tonsils (Nasopharynx, Entrance to Auditory Tubes) • Palatine Tonsils (Oropharynx) • Lingual Tonsils (Oropharynx)

  8. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT • Larynx (Hyoid  Cricoid Cartilage) • 2 Functions: • Keep Movement of Food & Air Separate • Provide Sound for Speech • Glottis • Slit-like Opening into Larynx • Produces Speech with Vocal Cords

  9. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued • Cartilages: • Epiglottis • Covers Glottis • Prevents food from Entering Trachea • Thyroid (“Adam’s Apple”) • Cricoid (Inferior, Encircles Vocal Cords)

  10. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued • Trachea (“Windpipe”) • “C”-Shaped Tracheal Cartilage Prevents Collapse • No Cartilage Posterior, Allows Swallowing • Bronchial Tree • Branching Airway • Carina (Ridge at Bifurcation of Trachea) • Supported by Cartilage

  11. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT continued • Primary Bronchi  Secondary Bronchi  Tertiary Bronchi  Bronchioles (Terminal & Respiratory)  Alveolar Ducts  Alveoli • Lungs • Paired (“spongy”) Organs • Surfaces • Apex (Superior Extension, Above Clavicle) • Hilum (Vertical slit on Mediastinal Surface) • Cardiac Notch (Recess on Left Lung) • Base (Inferior, Rests on Diaphragm)

  12. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT/Lungs continued • Located in thoracic cavity, lateral to heart, superior to diaphragm • Protected by pleura (serous membrane) • Visceral (inner, covers lung surface) • Parietal (outer, lines thoracic cavity)

  13. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT/Lungs continued • Lobes • Right Lung - 3 Lobes: Superior, Middle, Inferior • Left Lung - 2 Lobes: Superior, Inferior • Fissures • Horizontal Fissure (Between Superior & Middle Lobes, Right Lung) • Right Oblique Fissure (Middle & Inferior) • Left Oblique Fissure (Superior & Inferior)

  14. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT/Lungs continued • Alveoli • Microscopic, Membranous Air Sacs • Functional Unit of Lungs, Site of Gas Exchange Between Respiratory & Circulatory Systems (by diffusion) • Simple Squamous E.T. • Surfactant Reduces Surface Tension, Prevents Collapse

  15. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY • Pulmonary Ventilation (Breathing) • Relies on Gas Traveling from High Pressure to Low Pressure (“Negative Pressure System”) • 2 Stages: • Inspiration • Diaphragm & Intercostal Muscles Contract • Volume of Thoracic Cavity Increases, Pressure Decreases • Air Rushes into Lungs

  16. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY continued • Expiration • Diaphragm & Intercostal Muscles Relax (nerve stimuli halt) • Volume of Thoracic Cavity Decreases, Pressure Increases • Elastic Recoil of Tissues • Air Rushes out of Lungs

  17. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY continued • Respiratory Volumes • Tidal Volume (Amount in Single, Relaxed Breath or Breathing Cycle, 500 ml) • Inspiratory Reserve Volume (Amount Forcibly Taken in Above TV,  3,000 ml) • Expiratory Reserve Volume (Amount Forcibly Exhaled after TV,  1,000 ml) • Residual Volume (Always Remains in Lungs) • Vital Capacity (Max. Amount Exhaled, TV + IRV + ERV,  4,500 ml)

  18. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY continued • Gas Exchange (Respiration) • Occurs Across Respiratory Membrane (Alveolar Wall + Capillary Wall) • Gases Diffuse from Area of [High]  [Low] • O2 Bound to Hemoglobin + some in plasma • Chemoreceptors in Aorta & Carotid Arteries

  19. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY continued • CO2 Transport: • Plasma • Bicarbonate Ion (HCO3-) in RBCs • Attached to Hemoglobin

  20. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY continued • Occurs at 2 Locations: • External Respiration • O2: Alveoli  Pulmonary Capillaries • CO2: Alveoli  Pulmonary Capillaries • Internal Respiration • O2: Systemic Capillaries  Interstitial Spaces (Body Tissues) • CO2: Systemic Capillaries  Interstitial Spaces (Body Tissues)

  21. Control of Breathing • Respiratory Center/Group • Medulla – sets the basic rate & depth • CO2 changes (pH) act as stimuli • Pons – modifies rate • Chemoreceptors • Aorta & Carotid Artery detect changes in oxygen concentration