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THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

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THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

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  1. THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Chapter 25

  2. The Movement Begins

  3. Section 1 • Plessy vs. Ferguson - 1896 ruling that established “Separate but Equal” - which meant segregation was legal as long as facilities were equal • “Jim Crow Laws” - set of unwritten rules that kept blacks and whites separate • De Facto segregation - segregation by custom and tradition • NAACP (1909) - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

  4. Court Cases • Norris v. Alabama (1935) - not allowing blacks on a jury was unconstitutional • Morgan v. Virginia (1946) - segregation on buses was illegal • Sweat v. Painter (1950) - schools had to admit blacks if there wasn’t a black school

  5. Sect. 1 cont. • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - began using sit-ins as a form of protest (1943) • Thurgood Marshall - African American lawyer and director of legal defense for the NAACP • --eventual Supreme Court Justice • Opposition in Congress - • Southern manifesto (101 members) -denounced segregation • Southern Christian Leadership Conference - ministers to help desegregate and get blacks to vote

  6. Sect.1 • Rosa Parks - mother of the civil rights movement refused to give up her seat • Montgomery, Alabama • Sparked the bus boycott that lasted a year • Martin Luther King, JR. - 26 year old Baptist Minister • Preached non-violent, passive resistance

  7. End of Sect. 1 • SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference - ministers to help desegregate and get blacks to vote • Little Rock 9 • President - Eisenhower • Gov. of Arkansas - Orval Faubas • Central High School had to allow 9 blacks into their school • Faubus refuses, calls out the national guard to stop them • Eisenhower orders Federal troops to protect students • Civil Rights Act of 1957 - protect rights of blacks to vote

  8. Section 2 • Sit - ins - college students involved in non-violent protest (cafes) • Jesse Jackson - student leader at N.C. • Ella Baker - Ex. Dir. Of the SCLC (for students) • Student non-violent coordinating Commission (SNCC) - organized blacks and some white college students • Marion Barry - 1st chairperson, served later as Mayor of Washington D.C.

  9. Sect. 2 cont. • Fannie Lou Hammer - arrested for helping blacks vote • Freedom riders - CORE members rode segregated buses in the deep south • JFK - appointed 40 African Americans to high level positions • Committee on Equal Opportunity Employment - stop Fed. Gov. from discriminating while hiring

  10. Sect. 2 continued • James Meredith - Air Force Vet. That applied to the U. of Mississippi • Gov. Ross Barnett blocked his entrance, JFK had to send troops to make sure he got in • MLK started to protest in Alabama , he was arrested and wrote a letter while in jail to explain why people had the right to protest • Civil Rights Act of 1964 - rights for African Americans, Gov. had the power to prevent discrimination

  11. Sect. 2 cont. • Filibuster - refusal to stop debate so the representatives can vote • Cloture - motion to cut off debate • March on Washington - 200,000 people listened to speeches in front of Lincoln Memorial • MLK - “I Have a Dream”

  12. Last of Sect. 2 • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission - Fed. Agency to monitor discrimination • Voting Rights - some places would charge a poll tax - fees to vote • March on Selma, Alabama - marched to vote and they were met at the bridge and beaten • Successful after protection from the Gov. • Voting Rights Act of 1965 - passed by LBJ • Allowed Fed. Examiners to help people to vote

  13. Section 3 • 1965 - 70% of blacks lived in cities, 1/2 lived in poverty, income was 1/2 that of whites • Watts Riots - In a black neighborhood in L.A., alleged police brutality led to a riot • -$30 million in damage, 34 people killed • 1967 - riot in Detroit , 43 dead

  14. Sect. 3 cont. • Kerner Commission 1967- advisory board on civil disorder, blamed white racism, needed to create jobs in inner cities • Chicago movement - Dr. King and wife moved into slum area • Richard Daley - mayor of Chicago, protected King and others marching in all white neighborhoods

  15. Sect. 3 cont. • Black Power - more radical civil rights , often violence • Stokeley Carmichael - leader of the SNCC in 1966, blacks can control their own destiny • Cultural assimilation - adapting to majorities culture • Malcolm X - part of the black power movement, member of Nation of Islam - Elijah Muhummad leader, preached separation • Malcolm broke away from the NOI and was killed by 3 members, Feb. 1965

  16. Last of Sect. 3 • Black Panthers - wanted a revolution of blacks vs. whites (separation by force if needed) • Eldridge Cleaver - wrote “Souls on Ice” • MLK Jr. killed in 1968 by James Earl Ray • James Abernathy took over the fight • Civil Rights Act of 1968 - added a part for equal housing

  17. Review for Ch. 24 • Things to study: • Court cases - Norris v. Alabama - couldn’t exclude blacks on juries • Sweatt v. Painter - had to admit black applicants to law school • Brown v. Board of Ed. - couldn’t segregate schools, basically overturned Plessy v. Ferguson • Morgan v. Virginia- segregation on buses was unconstitutional • N. Carolina - sit-in (Woolworths), Tennessee (assassination of MLK), Arkansas (state v. fed gov in Little Rock 9), Alabama (bus boycott) • Black power - self defense, violence if necessary, control the social and economic direction of blacks, pride and race distinctiveness • MLK - passive non-violence EVER