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Challenges to Christendom: Reformation Europe PowerPoint Presentation
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Challenges to Christendom: Reformation Europe

Challenges to Christendom: Reformation Europe

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Challenges to Christendom: Reformation Europe

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  1. Challenges to Christendom: Reformation Europe History 103The West and the World

  2. Focus Questions • Where and how did the reform movements take hold, and how did the emergence of these reform movements affect the political and social realms where they were adopted? • What measures did the Roman Catholic Church take to reform itself and to combat Protestantism in the sixteenth century? • What were the main tenets of Lutheranism, Zwinglianism, Calvinism, and Anabaptism, and how did they differ from each other and from Catholicism?

  3. What is this and how did it happen? Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion , or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…

  4. European Expansion

  5. Europe in 1526

  6. Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon Catherine Joanna

  7. Philip and Joanna Maximilian I of Habsburg and Mary of Burgundy with Family Charles V Habsburg and Burgundy Connection

  8. Habsburg vs Valois Francis I, 1494-47 King of France, 1515-47 Charles V, 1500-58 Holy Roman Emperor, 1519-56

  9. European Expansion

  10. The Ottoman Empire, 1520-1566

  11. Protestant Reformation • Justification by Faith • Bible vs Tradition • Priesthood of all Believers Martin Luther 1483-1546

  12. The Era of Reformations • The Luther Story • Protestant Reformation: Theology • Protestant Reformation: Calvinism • Catholic Reformation, and the Battle for Europe • Radical Reformation

  13. The Luther Story • Reform and Reformation • The Appeal of Luther • Power of Ideas • Princes • Printing Press • Peasants • Reformations

  14. Protestant Reformation: Theology Justification by Faith: “It is clear, then, that a Christian has all that he needs in faith and needs no works to justify him.” The Freedom of a Christian (p. 601)

  15. Protestant Reformation: Theology Scripture Alone: “One thing . . . is necessary for Christian life, righteousness, and freedom. That one thing is the most holy Word of God.” The Freedom of a Christian (p. 597)

  16. Protestant Reformation: Theology • Priesthood of Believers: “Christ has made it possible for us, provided we believe in him, to be . . . his fellow-priests.” The Freedom of a Christian (p. 607)

  17. The Spread of the Reformation • The Peasants War (1524-25) • Luther’s Response, Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants • Lutheranism in Scandinavia • Ulrich Zwingli in Switzerland (Zurich) • Schmalkaldic Wars (1546-1555) and Peace of Augsburg 1555 – cujus regio, ejus religio • Anabaptists

  18. Radical Reformaton • Church and State • Adult baptism • Nonviolence • A church of martyrs

  19. Radical Reformation “’Michael Sattler shall be delivered to the executioner, who shall . . . cut out his tongue; then throw him upon a wagon, and there tear his body twice with red hot tongs; and after he has been brought without the gate, he shall be Pinched five times in the same manner’. . He was burned to ashes as a heretic . . His wife . . was drowned a few days afterwards.” Martyrs’ Mirror (p. 4)

  20. Protestant Reformation John Calvin 1509-1564

  21. Protestant Reformaton:Calvinism “Original sin . . . appears to be a hereditary depravity and corruption of our nature, diffused through all the parts of the soul, rendering us obnoxious to the Divine wrath, and producing in us . . . ‘works of the flesh.’” Institutes of the Christian Religion (p. 229).

  22. Protestant Reformation:Calvinism “Predestination we call the eternal degree of God, by which he has determined in himself, what he would have to become of every individual of mankind . . . Eternal life is foreordained for some, and eternal damnation for others.” Institutes of the Christian Religion (p. 145)

  23. Elizabeth I (1533-1603) Reign 1558-1603 Henry VIII (1491-1547) Reign 1509-1547

  24. Catholic Reformation, and Battle for Europe • Reformation within the Church • Council of Trent (1545-63) • Halting the Protestant Advance • Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) • Peace of Westphalia (1648)

  25. Ignatius of Loyola (1490-1556) and the Jesuits • Biography • Society of Jesus • Spiritual Exercises • Schools and Education The Miracles of St. Ignatius, Rubens 1617

  26. COUNCIL OF TRENT1545-1563 • Internal Reform of Corruption in Church • Affirms that both Faith & Good Works Necessary for Salvation • Intersession of Saints, Indulgences, Purgatory • Affirms the Importance of Bible & Tradition • Affirms the Validity of Seven Sacraments • Affirms Transubstantiation

  27. Religions in Europe