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## Addition and Subtraction

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**Addition**and Subtraction Scaffolding Instruction**Big Picture of Session**• TEKS Focus: Addition and Subtraction • Instructional Focus: Scaffolding • Scaffolding Focus: Effective use of graphic organizers and representational tools to develop, bridge, and build conceptual understanding**Instructional Focus: Scaffolding**Scaffolding**According to Lev Vygotsky . . .**“The zone of proximal development is the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.” L.S. Vygotsky, (1978)**Scaffolding**Unknown “Through scaffolding, the teacher was able to build bridges from the unknown and not understood to the known and understood.” Henderson, Many, Wellborn, and Ward. (2002, Summer). Reading Research and Instruction, 41(4), p. 310. Known**Video Reflection**• How does the instructor scaffold Tomika’s learning? [Tomika Video]**First Turn/Last Turn**• Read individually. Highlight 2-3 items. • In turn, share one of your items but do not comment on it. • Group members comment in round-robin fashion* – about the item (without cross-talk). • The initial person who named the item then shares his or her thinking about the item and takes the last turn, making the final comments. • Repeat the pattern around the table. *Round-robin is a highly structured participation strategy. Group members speak in turns, moving around the table in one direction.**What Is Scaffolding in Mathematics Instruction?**What is Scaffolding in Mathematics Instruction?**Scaffolding Focus**Bridging conceptual understanding using: • Graphic organizers • Representational Tools**Video Reflection**What are some examples of videos shown yesterday that use a graphic organizer to enhance understanding?**Scaffolding Instruction Through Questioning**“Teachers can use questions as a kind of scaffolding to help students reach higher levels of thinking and learning. . . In the asking of questions, teachers are thinking actively and helping students be active thinkers” (Walsh and Sattes, 2005, p 23).**Video Reflection**How do the teacher’s questions help Shania become successful with the problem 15 minus 1? [Shania Video]**Modeling Addition**and Subtraction Pre Kindergarten and Kindergarten Lesson**Linking Cubes to Represent Characters**1 gorilla – 1 blue cube 2 elephants – 2 white cubes 3 tigers – 3 orange cubes 4 parrots – 4 red cubes 5 monkeys – 5 brown cubes**One gorilla is out of his cage,**Oh my, what a rage!**Two elephants followed in line,**Parading, strutting, looking fine!**Three tigers let out a roar,**As they join the fun galore.**Four parrots flew the coop,**What a crazy looking group.**Time to Reflect**Which manipulative is easier to use and to understand the concepts for this activity?**Part-Part-Whole Mat for Addition**Explore**IIII**IIII Part-Part-Whole Mat 10**Five monkeys**scream and shout. It doesn’t take long for them to get out!**Five monkeys scream and shout.**It doesn’t take long for them to get out! 5 10 + = 15**Cling! Clang! It’s dinner time!**Five monkeys swing home in rhyme.**Cling! Clang! It’s dinner time!Five monkeys swing home in**rhyme. 15 - = 10 5**Four parrots hungry for seed**Quickly fly back to feed.**Three tigers smell red meat,**As they swiftly spring to their feet.**Two elephants run for food.**They must eat not to be rude!**One gorilla, sad and blue,**What do you think he should do?**Time to Reflect**How did we use visuals to move the students from the concrete to the abstract level of learning?