Chapter 10 : Mass Media Yoko Ng Period 4th
What is Mass Media ? • Mass media is media that is intended for a large audience. It may take the form of broadcast media, as in the case of television and radio, or print media, like newspapers and magazines. • Usually, mass media aims to reach a very large market, such as the entire population of a country. By contrast, local media covers a much smaller population and area, focusing on regional news of interest, while specialty media is provided for particular demographic groups.
TYPES AND FUNCTIONS OF MASS MEDIA • Television:Television is a powerful medium for appealing to mass audiencest reaches people regardless of age, sex, income, or educational level • Radio : Radio also reaches mass and diverse audiences. The specialization of radio stations by listener age, taste, and even gender permits more selectivity in reaching audience segments. • Internet : The Internet places users in firmer autonomous control of which messages are accessed and when they are accessed. • Newspaper : newspapers are read daily in 70 percent of U.S. households, and in as many as 90 percent of high-income households. Newspapers permit a level of detail in health reporting not feasible with broadcast media. • Other Print Media: espPamphlets, brochures, and posters. few of these print media were developed with the assistance of target audiences, and few contained varied messages, were culturally tailored, or employed readability and face validity techniques. • Outdoor Media : billboards and signs, placards inside and outside of commercial transportation modes, flying billboards, blimps, and skywriting. For persons who regularly pass by billboards or use public transportation, these media may provide repeated exposure to messages.
Government influence on the media • The media are dependent upon officials for the largest amount of source materia • The US government provides a number of subsidies to media companies • The government protects media companies from foreign or domestic attack • Officials can withhold information • Officials can censor—especially during wartime
Government Control Access • During war, who is in ‘embedded’? • Army control over where they go, who they talk to, what they say, to some extent • Press releases • Press conferences • Who gets called on? • Who isn’t invited back? • Press passes • Official meetings • Air Force One, etc. • What organizations are considered the ‘press’?
Effects of the Media on Politics Pro Con The business of political journalism has become less about asking tough questions and more about being the first to announce what the government recently did. The lightning speed of news puts pressure on political figures to make faster decisions. In the case of most crises today, a very significant portion of the population is likely to be made aware of the crisis within hours or days. • One of the first positive effects, is that mass media keeps people informed of any recent events within a short amount of time. When, for example, a politician is assassinated, you will hear this immediately, so that you will know what is going on. Media keeps you informed. It also helps in other things like entertainment, gaining knowledge etc. • News broadcast through different media helps us know about the day-to-day events in the world • Media contribute to a transformation in the cultural and social values of the masses. Media can bring about a change in the attitudes and beliefs of the common man