Chapter 14: China Section 1: China Reunifies Section 2:Tang and Song Achievements Section 3: Confucianism and Government Section 4: The Yuan and Ming Dynasties Page: 410-431
Section 1China Reunifies • Period of Disunion- time of disorder in China after the Han collapsed (220-589). • Culture blending took place during this time, changing Chinese culture.
Yang Jian (YANG jee-en) created the Sui Dynasty and reunifies China, ending the Period of Disunion. The Sui Dynasty did not last long (589-618). Sui Achievements Restored order to China Began the Grand Canal, which linked northern and southern China Sui Dynasty(SWAY)
Ruled nearly 300 Years China grew its territory under the Tang 3 Great Tang Rulers Taizong (TY-tzoong) Xuangzong (shoo-an-tzoong) Empress Wu The Tang DynastyChina’s Golden Age
After the Tang • China went into another brief period of disorder. • This time was known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. • Disorder lasted 53 Years (907-960)
Song reunified China again. Ruled for 300 Years, like the Tang Buddhism grew in China and became very important to the culture during the Period of Disunion. The Golden Age of Buddhism (400-825) Tang emperor launched a campaign against Buddhism weakening the religion, but not bringing it to an end. The Song DynastyGreat Accomplishments
Trade and Religious Capital/Largest City=Chang’an (chahng-AHN). The Grand Canal that linked major cities, was improved Famous poet was Li Bo Magnetic Compass Exports Tea, rice, spices, jade, porcelain, SILK Imports Different foods, plants, wool, glass, gold, silver Irrigation Techniques Underground wells Dragon backbone pump Fast Ripening Rice Cotton Tea Plentiful amount of Food=Agricultural Surplus China became the largest country in the world (100 million people) Capital City-Kaifeng (KY-fuhng) Li Qingzhao (ching-ZHOW)=China’s greatest female poet Section 2Tang and Song Achievements Tang Dynasty Song Dynasty
Read Linking to TodayPage 419 • What are some advantages of paper money?
Section 3Confucianism and Government • Confucianism-dominate and official philosophy in China • Focus: Ethics, education and proper behavior based on your role in society. • Neo-Confucianism-”new” was like the old philosophy, but also emphasized spiritual matters. • In the Song, a bureaucracy was formed through passing the civil service examinations. The people who passed these exams were known as scholar-officials.
The Mongols take over China under Temujin or Genghis Khan (Universal Ruler) Genghis Khan united the Mongols and created a powerful army. The Mongols conquered lands all over Asia and Eastern Europe. Kublai Khan was 2nd ruler of the Mongols (grandson of Genghis) started the Yuan Dynasty and declared himself Emperor of China The Chinese resented being ruled by foreigners whose culture was very different from theirs. Kublai allowed Chinese to keep their own traditions, welcomed foreign traders, but kept Confucian scholars from gaining too much power in the government Part of what we know about the Yuan Dynasty comes from Marco Polo’s writings Section 4The Yuan and Ming Dynasties Yuan Dynasty
End of The Yuan • Greedy for land, the Mongols decided to invade Japan. • The campaigns were disastrous. Violent storms and fierce defenders destroyed most of the Mongol army. • Weakened Army, economy, and Chinese resentment helped Zhu Yuanzhang (JOO-yoo-ahn-JAHNG) lead a successful revolt against the Mongols, ending the Yuan Dynasty.
Ming DynastyChinese Rule • Zhu Yuanzhang became emperor of China and this began the Brilliant Ming Dynasty. • This was considered the most stable and prosperous time in Chinese History. • Funded Great Sea Voyages • Zheng He • Forbidden City was build in Beijing • Restored the Great Wall of China • The Ming Emperors worked to rid any foreign influence in China. • In fact a new Ming Emperor made Zheng He return to China and China entered a Period of Isolationism. • China suffered due to its isolationism: lack of progress while the Western World made leaps in technology and other areas. When Westerns marched into Chinese affairs, China was too weak to stop them.