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The Scientific Method and Quality Improvement

The Scientific Method and Quality Improvement

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The Scientific Method and Quality Improvement

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  1. The Scientific Method and Quality Improvement OCMA 2006 tom.sutton@mohawkcollege.ca

  2. Continuous Improvement

  3. Ideas

  4. Seven Statistical Tools • Check sheet • Pareto chart • Cause and effect diagram • Histogram • Scatter plot • Stratification • Graphs (control charts)

  5. Problem • 75 defective springs in a week’s production • Check sheet with defect type • Display on a Pareto chart • Identify the important problem • Focus on the “vital few” not the “trivial many”

  6. Pareto Chart

  7. Histogram of Crack Size

  8. DESIGN Ideas

  9. Experiment for three factors

  10. RUN DESIGN Ideas

  11. RUN DESIGN ANALYZE Ideas

  12. RUN DESIGN ANALYZE Ideas

  13. RUN DESIGN ANALYZE Ideas More Ideas KNOWLEDGE

  14. What is Six Sigma?

  15. Process Capability

  16. 99% Quality Level • 20,000 lost mail articles per hour • Unsafe drinking water 15 minutes /day • 5000 incorrect surgical operations per week • 2 short or long landings at major airports/day • 200,000 wrong drug prescriptions per year • No electricity for 7 hours per month

  17. Six Sigma Capability

  18. Six Sigma • Define • Measure • Analyze • Improve • Control

  19. Six Sigma Black Belt • Define • Project scope • Metrics • Problem statement

  20. Six Sigma Black Belt • Measure • Process analysis • Probability and statistics • Collecting and summarizing data • Properties and applications of prob. Distributions • Measurement systems • Analyzing process capability

  21. Six Sigma Black Belt • Analyze • Exploratory data analysis • Sources of variation • Regression, analyze residuals • Hypothesis testing • Interval estimates • Tests for means, variances and proportions • Paired comparisons • ANOVA • Contingency tables

  22. Six Sigma Black Belt • Improve • Design of experiments • Design principles • One factor experiments • Full factorial experiments • Fractional factorial experiments • Robustness concepts • Mixture experiments • Response surface methodology • Steepest ascent • Higher order experiments • Evolutionary Operation (EVOP)

  23. Six Sigma Black Belt • Control • Statistical Process Control • Application of control charts • Analysis of control charts • Advanced SPC • Short run SPC • EWMA, CUSUM • Lean tools for control • Measurement system analysis • Design for Six Sigma • Quality Function Deployment • Robust design • Failure mode and effects analysis

  24. Six Sigma Black Belt • Improve • Design of experiments • Design principles • One factor experiments • Full factorial experiments • Fractional factorial experiments • Robustness concepts • Mixture experiments • Response surface methodology • Steepest ascent • Higher order experiments • Evolutionary Operation (EVOP)

  25. Design of Experiments

  26. Popcorn Experiment

  27. Analysis

  28. The Helicopter Experiment • Design an experiment to study the factors that may affect flight time. • Measure distance from target as well

  29. Helicopter Factors

  30. References • Paper by George Box • www.statease.com • www.minitab.com • www.asq.org • www.isixsigma.com