World War I Begins Chapter 19 sec 1
Causes of World War I Nationalism • Devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation. • This leads to competition and many fear Germany’s growing power. • Ethnic groups band together and demand their own independent nation.
Imperialism • The race to gain colonies led to competition and tension between European countries. • Countries have been increasing their military strength and extending markets for years now. • Germany had been the fastest country to industrialize and compete with France and Britain
Militarism • the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy. • The major powers of Europe had built up great armies and stockpiled weapons. • Germany extremely strong because they draft and train young men Alliances • By 1914 two major alliances had formed in Europe. • Allies- France, Great Britain, & Russia. • Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungry, Italy, & the Ottoman Empire.
Igniting Incident • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand • Heir to Austrian throne. • Austrian citizen of Serbian descent Gavrilo Princip, who wanted independence for Serbia, shot the archduke in Sarajevo, Bosnia. • Russia, ally of Serbia, begins to mobilize military as Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. • Germany, ally of Austria-Hungry, declares war on Russia August 1, 1914- 2 days later Germany declares war on France. • August 3, 1914, Germany moves troops into Belgium advancing toward France—causing Great Britain to declare war on Germany.
Schiefflin Plan • August 3, 1914 Germany invades Belgium • German plan to hold attack on Russia while driving through Belgium to take France • Once taking France they would send two armies towards Russia • Belgians fall quickly and retreat to Marne in France
Trench Warfare • armies fought for a few yards of ground. • Men move from position to position constantly under machine gun fire • “No man’s land” area between frontline trench and enemy trench, laced with barbed wire. • Soldiers had to deal with rats, lice, flooding and diseases- trench fever and trench foot. They ate, slept and fought among the dead.
Battle at Somme • July 1, 1916 exclusively trench warfare fought over small amount of area • British suffer 60,000 loses on the first day • 1.2 million die before it ends in Mid-November • In the end 7 miles of ground change hand
Strained Neutrality • Americans were divided. • Pacifists thought war was evil; Socialists criticized the war as a capitalist, imperialist struggle between Germany and England for control over colonies. Families hear horrors and don’t want to send sons to their death • Many “hyphenated Americans”- 1st or 2nd generation immigrants, retained ties to their old country and wanted to help in war effort. ~ German Americans- 8 million- sympathetic to Germans ~Irish Americans- 4million- want to see British lose for years of oppression ~ Old line American- British origin- sided with Allied powers. • More important was America’s economic ties with Allied powers. • War generated an Economic boost in U.S. goods- great need for food and war supplies.
Survival depended upon access to supplies: tradition Freedom of the Seas • German submarines were attacking Allied supply ships. • Britain declared North Sea a war zone, filled it with mines and ordered neutral ships to be searched. • U.S. protested • Britain declared would seize all ships carrying supplies to Germany. • Germany responds declaring the area around the British Isles a war zone and would sink enemy ships in that area. And it may not always be possible to save crews and passengers. • U.S. warns Germany they are held to “strict accountability” for destruction of American lives or property. • U.S. begin to mobilize to ensure allies repay debts and to prevent German threat on U.S. ships
Lusitania sunk: May 7, 1915 • British ocean liner left New York for Britain, carrying Americans. 1,198 die including 128 Americans. • German Defense- Lusitania was carrying ammunition. • Americans outraged, turn against Germans and central powers. • U.S. begins to mobilize, but Wilson refuses to go to war • 3 months later another British liner Arabic sunk by German U-boat • U.S. protested again and Germany agreed not to target passenger vessels. • March 1916 Germany torpedoes French steamer the Sussex. Many die including Americans.U.S. warns Germany again- again they promise.
Election of 1916: • Republicans- Justice Charles Evans Hughes, progressive record as governor of New York 1907-1910. • Democrats- Woodrow Wilson • platform: social welfare legislation Neutrality in War Reasonable Military Preparedness • Campaign Slogan: “He Kept Us Out of War” • Wilson wins narrowly- popular vote: 9 mil to 8.5 mil.
United States Declares War • Germany ignores Wilson’s pleas of peace. Germany planned on resuming unrestricted submarine warfare. Wilson says will wait for “overt acts” before declaring war. • 3 events lead to US entering war
Zimmerman Note: intercepted message from German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman to his Ambassador in Mexico. • offered alliance and aid to Mexico in case of war between U.S. and Germany. • Promised: Mexico would gain lost territory in U.S. for alliance- Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. • Bolshevik Revolution: led by Vladimir Lenin, seize power in Russia and began a Communist dictatorship. Russia pulls out of war. • Four unarmed American ships sank over this period killing 36. • April 6, 1917- U.S. declares war “The world must be made safe for democracy”- Woodrow Wilson