Cantos VIII and Ix Dante's Inferno Alighieri Presented by: Samia Batchelor
Canto 8 • 5th Circle - Styx • Sinners: The Wrathful, Phleygas, Filippo Argenti • Synopsis: Virgil and Dante are following the flame of a lighthouse. The Boatman of Stykes, Phlegyas speeds across the water towards them. When he reaches them, he is infuriated with the fact that Dante is alive, but Virgil convinces him to let them pass. The sinners, covered in mud, emerge from the waters, and Dante recognizes Filippo Argenti as the Florentine politician with whom he was mortal enemies. Dante insults Argenti by calling him a "hell-dog" and wishing him to "weep and wail to all eternity". This makes Virgil very proud. Then Argenti is "mangled" by the other sinners. Dante sees the bright red towers of the City of Dis.
Canto 8 • 6th Circle – City of Dis • Sinners: The Fallen (Rebellious) Angels • Synopsis: Virgil and Dante see the bright red hue of the eternal fire that rages within City of Dis in the distance. It is the Capital of Hell, separating upper Hell from Lower Hell. Phlegyas leaves them at the Iron Gate that contains the city and is heavily guarded by thousands of Rebellious Angels, who rebelled against God. They are the "Ultimate Evil". The Fallen Angels agree to let Virgil enter but refuse to let Dante enter because again he is still alive. "Human reason by itself cannot cope with the essence of evil." Virgil refuses to leave Dante alone, so he simply prays and waits for his prayer to be answered.
Contrapasso For their obsession with material wealth, the sinners in the river have nothing and are covered in gross, thick mud. The Wrathful are constantly being ruthelessly attacked by one another.
Canto 9 • 6th Circle – Dity of Dis • Sinners: The Heretics • Synopsis: Dante and Virgil realize that without the help of God, they would die at the Gate of Dis. Three monstrous women (the Furies: Magaera, Allecto, and Tisphone) Threaten Dante that Medusa will turn him to stone. Virgil turns Dante away from the Furies and instructs him to block his eyes. With his eyes shut, Dante hears a loud sound. Virgil orders him to open his eyes so he can witness the Heaven's Messenger. When it arrives in a storm, the messenger simply touches the gate and it immediately opens. It then condemns the inhabitants of Dis for disobeying God's will. Virgil and Dante enter the city and find a countryside cemetery with tombs open tombs everywhere. The sinners in the graves are burning in flames and crying out in agony. Contrapasso Heretics- "Those who did violence to god by denying immortality"(Page 67) They believed that the soul dies with the body, so they were sentenced to an eternal grave in which they bure and suffered indefinitely.
Works Cited Alighieri, Dante. "Canto IX." The Inferno, translated by John Ciardi, Signet Classics, 2001, pp. 68-74. ---. "Canto VII." The Inferno, translated by John Ciardi, Signet Classics, 2001, pp. 59-66. Botticelli, Sandro. The Punishment of the Heretics. 1480. The World of Dante, Deborah Parker. Accessed 21 Sept. 2019. "Dis (Divine Comedy)." Wikipedia, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia., 18 Apr. 2019. Accessed 21 Sept. 2019. Doré, Gustave. Celestial Messenger Dispersing the Devils. 1890. The World of Dante, Deborah Parker. Accessed 21 Sept. 2019. ---. Virgil Confronting the Devils outside the City of Dis. 1890. The World of Dante, Deborah Parker. Accessed 21 Sept. 2019. ---. Virgil Pushes Filippo Argenti Back into the River Styx. 1890. The World of Dante, Deborah Parker. Accessed 21 Sept. 2019. ---. Wrathful Trying to Emerge from the River Styx. 1890. The World of Dante, Deborah Parker. Accessed 21 Sept. 2019. "Hades." Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, 15 Mar. 2019. Accessed 21 Sept. 2019. "Inferno Inferno Canto VIII (the river Styx, the gates of Dis) Summary." Shmoop, Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Accessed 21 Sept. 2019.
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