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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Focus Section 1 Presidential Powers Section 2 Roles of the President Section 3 Styles of Leadership Chapter Assessment Contents

  3. Why It’s Important

  4. Chapter Objectives • Presidential Powers Summarize the historical changes in the powers of the presidency. • Roles of the President Describe the seven major roles of the president. • Styles of Leadership Evaluate the leadership qualities important to the success of a president. Chapter Objectives

  5. End of Chapter Focus

  6. Presidential Powers • Key Terms • mandate, forum • Find Out • • Why do presidential powers tend to grow in times of national emergency? • • What are the sources of and limits to the powers of the president? Section 1 Introduction-1

  7. Presidential Powers • Understanding Concepts • Constitutional InterpretationsWithin the scope of constitutional limitations and powers, why does each president define the office differently? • Section Objective • Summarize the historical changes in the powers of the presidency. Section 1 Introduction-2

  8. Strong presidents sometimes defy even the Supreme Court. President Andrew Jackson was determined to force Native Americans in the Southeast to move west to the Oklahoma Territory. When Chief Justice Marshall ruled that the Cherokee nation’s treaty with Georgia protected its rights and property, Jackson reportedly refused to accept the decision.” John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it,” Jackson reportedly said. He ignored the Court and carried out the Indian Removal Act passed by Congress in 1830. Section 1-1

  9. I. Constitutional Powers (pages 245–247) • A. The Founders recognized the need for a strong executive branch to overcome the weaknesses of the Confederation government and to hold the legislative branch in check. • B. Article II grants the president broad but vaguely described powers. He heads the executive branch, is commander in chief, conducts foreign policy, and has judicial powers. Section 1-2

  10. I. Constitutional Powers (pages 245–247) Why do you think the Founders granted the president broad but vaguely described powers? They wanted an executive that would protect personal liberty, property, and business and hold the legislature in check. Section 1-3

  11. II. Informal Sources of Power (pages 247–249) • A. Presidents have added to their powers by their actions; for example, Theodore Roosevelt declared his intent to do anything the needs of the nation required if such action was not expressly forbidden by the Constitution. • B. During national crises, presidents like Abraham Lincoln, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and George W. Bush greatly expanded the powers of the presidency as the federal government dealt with dangers facing the United States. Section 1-4

  12. II. Informal Sources of Power (pages 247–249) • C. Modern presidents claim their ideas and policies represent a mandate from the people, and they use all forms of mass media to build support for their ideas. Section 1-5

  13. II. Informal Sources of Power (pages 247–249) Do you agree or disagree with critics who complain that modern presidents have too much power? Explain. Answers will vary. Students should demonstrate knowledge of informal sources of power. Section 1-6

  14. III. Limits of Presidential Power (pages 249–250) • A. The Constitution gives Congress the power to limit presidential authority by overriding a veto or impeaching and removing the president from office for clear abuse of power. • B. The federal courts also limit the president’s power. The Supreme Court can overturn presidential actions, as it did President Truman in Youngstown SheetandTube v. Sawyer (1952). Section 1-7

  15. III. Limits of Presidential Power (pages 249–250) • C. The federal bureaucracy sometimes limits presidential power by obstructing programs or failing to carry them out properly, especially when key bureaucrats work closely with powerful congressional leaders to carry out their own programs rather than the president’s. • D. Public opinion can limit the president’s actions, as it did with President Lyndon Johnson’s policies in Vietnam and President Clinton’s proposed national health care program. Section 1-8

  16. III. Limits of Presidential Power (pages 249–250) Section 1-9

  17. III. Limits of Presidential Power (pages 249–250) How can public opinion limit the president’s power? Public opinion can derail the most central presidential programs because members of Congress, who must vote on legislation to enact the president’s programs, are subject to reelection. If they go against voters’ wishes, they may lose in the next election. Section 1-10

  18. Checking for Understanding • 1. Main Idea Using a graphic organizer like the one below, list two or more constitutional limits and three other limits on presidential power. • Answers might include: Constitutional limits: congressional override; Senate’s confirmation power; the power to impeach. Other limits: federal courts; the bureaucracy; public opinion. Section 1 Assessment-1

  19. Checking for Understanding • 2. Define mandate, forum. • A mandate is a formal order given by a higher authority. • A forum is a medium for discussion. Section 1 Assessment-2

  20. Checking for Understanding • 3. Identify War Powers Act. • The War Powers Act prevents presidents from committing troops to combat for more than 60 days without congressional approval. Section 1 Assessment-3

  21. Checking for Understanding • 4. In what three ways have former presidents expanded the power of their office? • Any three of the following: Jefferson’s purchase of the Louisiana Territory, Theodore Roosevelt’s broad interpretation of presidential power, Lincoln’s actions during the Civil War, Franklin Roosevelt’s expansion of the government’s role in the economy Section 1 Assessment-4

  22. Checking for Understanding • 5. Why, during Lyndon Johnson’s presidency, did Congress pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution? • Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to give the president the authority to cope with the situation in Vietnam. Section 1 Assessment-5

  23. Critical Thinking • 6. Distinguishing Fact from Opinion President Wilson said the president “is at liberty, both in law and conscience . . . to be as big a man as he can.” Explain if this statement is fact or opinion. • Some students may say it is opinion because many presidents believed the Constitution limited their power. Others may say fact because other presidents molded the office to their own interpretations of the Constitution. Section 1 Assessment-6

  24. Constitutional Interpretations Determine if you think there should be greater limits on the president’s power. Compose several catchy slogans supporting your view and create signs or buttons that might be used in a rally. Section 1 Concepts in Action

  25. End of Section 1

  26. Roles of the President • Key Terms • executive order, impoundment, reprieve, pardon, amnesty, patronage, treaty, executive agreement • Find Out • • How do the presidential roles of head of state, chief diplomat, and commander in chief work together to provide leadership in foreign relations? • • What is the president’s role in the growth and stability of the American economy? Section 2 Introduction-1

  27. Roles of the President • Understanding Concepts • Political ProcessesHow have presidents used their political power to increase their policy-making role? • Section Objective • Describe the seven major roles of the president. Section 2 Introduction-2

  28. Former President George Bush, who led the nation to victory in the Persian Gulf War in 1991, made a parachute jump as a personal fiftieth anniversary celebration in 1997. As a Navy pilot, Bush had escaped death in World War II by parachuting into the Pacific after his plane was shot down by the Japanese. Section 2-1

  29. I. As head of state, the president: (page 252) • A. represents the nation at ceremonial functions; • B. is considered more than a politician, but rather a symbol of the entire United States. Section 2-2

  30. I. As head of state, the president: (page 252) Which role makes the president a living symbol of the nation? Head of state. Section 2-3

  31. II. As chief executive, the president: (pages 253–254) • A. heads the 2 million person executive branch; • B. influences how laws are executed through executive orders, presidential appointments, removal of appointed officials, and impoundment; • C. grants pardons, reprieves, or amnesty. Section 2-4

  32. II. As chief executive, the president: (pages 253–254) Do you think the president should have the power to impound money appropriated by Congress? Answers will vary. Impoundment is sometimes useful when the need for spending changes. Section 2-5

  33. III. As chief legislator, the president: (pages 254–255) • A. proposes legislation to Congress, usually in the State of the Union Address; • B. must work harder for congressional support when Congress is controlled by the opposition party; • C. may use political favors to gain congressional support; • D. has the threat of the veto to influence Congress. Section 2-6

  34. III. As chief legislator, the president: (pages 254–255) Why do members of Congress pay close attention to the State of the Union message? It contains information about the president’s possible legislative proposals for the coming year. Section 2-7

  35. IV. As economic planner, the president: (page 256) • A. has gained important economic powers since the New Deal; • B. promotes high employment, production, and purchasing power; • C. is required to prepare the federal budget each year. Section 2-8

  36. IV. As economic planner, the president: (page 256) Why does Congress continue to expand the president’s powers in economic affairs? Answers will vary. Perhaps to make the executive branch more and more responsible for the economy. Section 2-9

  37. V. As party leader, the president: (pages 256–257) • A. helps raise party funds and plan campaign strategies; • B. uses political patronage to appoint party members to government jobs. Section 2-10

  38. V. As party leader, the president: (pages 256–257) Do you agree with critics who claim the president’s job as leader of a political party clashes with his other duties? Explain. Answers will vary. See text pages 256–257 for discussion of conflicting roles. Section 2-11

  39. VI. As chief diplomat, the president: (pages 257–258) • A. directs foreign policy and oversees foreign affairs information agencies; • B. has sole power to make treaties, with Senate approval; • C. may make, without congressional approval, executive agreements having the force of treaties with foreign nations; • D. has the sole power to recognize foreign governments. Section 2-12

  40. VI. As chief diplomat, the president: (pages 257–258) Do you think executive agreements, like treaties, should have the Senate’s approval? Answers will vary, but students should recognize that the approval process for some treaties has proved cumbersome and time-consuming. Executive agreements are more efficient for time-sensitive decisions. Section 2-13

  41. VII.Ascommander in chief,the president: (pages 258–259) • A. shares with Congress the power to wage war; • B. makes key military policy decisions; • C. supports war efforts on the home front during wars; • D. may use the armed forces to end disorders or give aid in natural disasters. Section 2-14

  42. VII.Ascommander in chief,the president: (pages 258–259) Do you think a president with military experience makes better decisions as commander in chief?Explain. History helps answer this. Students may refer to presidents Franklin Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, etc. Section 2-15

  43. Checking for Understanding • 1. Main Idea Using a graphic organizer like the one below, describe the different duties of the president’s roles as head of state and chief executive. • Answers might include: Head of state—ceremonial duties; Chief Executive—executive orders, impoundment of funds, granting amnesty. Section 2 Assessment-1

  44. Checking for Understanding • A. the postponement of legal punishment • B. a group pardon to individuals for an offense against the government • C. the president’s refusal to spend money Congress has voted to fund a program • D. a rule issued by the president that has the force of law • E. a release from legal punishment Match the term with the correct definition. • ___ executive order • ___ impoundment • ___ reprieve • ___ pardon • ___ amnesty • D • C • A • E • B Section 2 Assessment-2

  45. Checking for Understanding • 3. Identify Council of Economic Advisers. • The Council of Economic Advisers assists the president in studying and preparing the annual economic report for Congress. Section 2 Assessment-3

  46. Checking for Understanding • 4. Describe three foreign relations duties of the president that are based on the Constitution. • The president as head of state performs ceremonial duties, as chief diplomat directs foreign policy, and as commander in chief directs the armed forces. Section 2 Assessment-4

  47. Checking for Understanding • 5. What officials may the president appoint? • The president may appoint cabinet members, agency directors, deputy directors and their assistants, and federal judges. Section 2 Assessment-5

  48. Critical Thinking • 6. Understanding Cause and Effect What decisions by a president affect the direction of the nation’s economy? • The president gives an annual economic report to Congress, prepares the federal budget, and proposes economic legislation. Section 2 Assessment-6

  49. Political Processes Imagine a typical day in the life of a United States president. Prepare an agenda for the president’s day. Be sure to keep the seven duties of the president in mind when creating the agenda. Section 2 Concepts in Action

  50. End of Section 2