Berlin Crises (1948-9, 1958-61)
Nuclear arms race West Berliners encouraged East Berliners to escape their hardships one sixth of Germany moved to west Berlin
dispute was only restricted to the borders of Germany • However, there were conferences that took place outside of Germany (Geneva, Paris, US) • Kennedy wanted to continue and expand work of CIA • There was the use of spies as espionage continued • refugees
" We intend to have a wider choice than humiliation or an all-out nuclear war" - JFK
This cartoon of 14 July 1948 by EH Shepard for the British magazine Punch shows Stalin watching as storks fly coal and food into Berlin. This cartoon by the British cartoonist Illingworth appeared in the Daily Mail on 9 September 1948.
3. WHAT WERE THE TYPES OF SETTLEMENTS WHICH CONCLUDED THE WAR, CONFLICT, DISPUTE?
Measure of Victory • Victory measured by how willing the other side would make concessions
Major Players First Berlin Crisis Second Berlin Crisis
Re-imposes 6-month deadline for West Berlin to become an international demilitarized zone • West did not react to barbed wires Second Berlin Crisis • Aug 3-5- barbed wire fence erected BERLIN WALL
The United Nations • “a threat to the peace within the meaning of Chapter VII of the Charter” • Oct 4- Berlin question debated in Security Council • Oct 5- resolution was voted 9:2 in favour of raising all restrictions on traffic to Berlin • Oct 25- vote for resolution- USSR vetoed • Preoccupation with other issues • May 4, 1949- agreement signed to lift blockade