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Chapter 2

Chapter 2. Norton Media Library. Chapter 2. American Beginnings, 1607–1650. Eric Foner. I. Jamestown. II. The Coming of the English. English Colonists Sustained immigration was vital for the settlement’s survival

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Chapter 2

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  1. Chapter 2 Norton Media Library Chapter 2 American Beginnings, 1607–1650 Eric Foner

  2. I. Jamestown

  3. II. The Coming of the English • English Colonists • Sustained immigration was vital for the settlement’s survival • Between 1607 and 1700, a little over half-a-million persons left England • They settled in Ireland, the West Indies, and North America • The majority in North America were young, single men from the bottom rungs of English society • Indentured Servants • Two-thirds of English settlers came to North America as indentured servants • Indentured servants did not enjoy any liberties while under contract

  4. II. The Coming of the English (con’t) • Land and Liberty • Land was the basis of liberty • Englishmen and Indians • The English were chiefly interested in displacing the Indians and settling on their land • Most colonial authorities in practice recognized Indians’ title to land based on occupancy • The seventeenth century was marked by recurrent warfare between colonists and Indians • Wars gave the English a heightened sense of superiority

  5. II. The Coming of the English (con’t) • Changes in Indian Life • English goods were eagerly integrated into Indian life • Over time, those European goods changed Indian farming, hunting, and cooking practices • Exchanges with Europeans stimulated warfare among Indian tribes • As the English sought to reshape Indian society and culture, their practices only undermined traditional Indian society

  6. III. Settling the Chesapeake • The Jamestown Colony • Settlement and survival were questionable in the colony’s early history because of high death rates, frequent changes in leadership, inadequate supplies from England, and placing gold before farming • By 1616, about 80 percent of the immigrants who had arrived in the first decade were dead • John Smith began to get the colony on its feet and new policies were adopted in 1618 so that the colony could survive: • headright system • a charter of grants and liberties • slavery; the first slaves arrived in 1619

  7. III. Settling the Chesapeake (con’t) • Powhatan’s World • Powhatan, the leader of thirty tribes near Jamestown, eagerly traded with the English • English-Indian relations were mostly peaceful initially • Pocahontas married John Rolfe in 1614, symbolizing Anglo-Indian harmony • The Uprising of 1622 • Once the English decided on a permanent colony instead of merely a trading post, conflict was inevitable • Opechancanough led an attack on Virginia’s settlers in 1622 • The English forced the Indians to recognize their subordination to the government at Jamestown and moved them onto reservations • The Virginia Company surrendered its charter to the crown in 1624

  8. III. Settling the Chesapeake (con’t) • A Tobacco Colony • Tobacco was Virginia’s “gold” and its production reached 30 million pounds by the 1680s • The expansion of tobacco led to an increased demand for field labor • Women and the Family • Virginian societies lacked a stable family life • Social conditions opened the door to roles women rarely assumed in England

  9. III. Settling the Chesapeake (con’t) • The Maryland Experiment • Maryland was established in 1632 as a proprietary colony under Cecilius Calvert • Calvert imagined Maryland as a feudal domain, but one that would act as a place of refuge for persecuted Catholics • Although Maryland had a high death rate, it seemed to have offered servants greater opportunity for land ownership than Virginia • Religious and political battles emerged and Maryland was on the verge of total anarchy in the 1640s • In 1649, the Act Concerning Religion was adopted, a milestone in the history of religious freedom in colonial America

  10. IV. Origins of American Slavery • Englishmen and Africans • The spread of tobacco led settlers to turn to slavery, which offered many advantages over indentured servants • In the early to mid seventeenth century, the concepts of race and racism had not fully developed • Africans were seen as alien in their color, religion, and social practices • Slavery in History • Although slavery has a long history, slavery in the North America was markedly different • Slavery developed slowly in the New World because slaves were expensive and their death rate was high in the seventeenth century

  11. Origins of American Slavery (con’t) • Slavery and the Law • The line between slavery and freedom was more permeable in the seventeenth century than it would later become • Some free blacks were allowed to sue and testify in court • Anthony Johnson arrived as a slave but became a slave-owning plantation owner • It was not until the 1660s that the laws of Virginia and Maryland explicitly referred to slavery • A Virginia law of 1662 provided that in the case of a child who had one free and one enslaved parent, the status of the offspring followed that of the mother • In 1667 the Virginia House of Burgesses decreed that religious conversion did not release a slave from bondage

  12. Origins of American Slavery (con’t) • A Slave Society • A number of factors made slave labor very attractive to English settlers by the end of the seventeenth century, and slavery began to supplant indentured servitude between 1680 and 1700 • By the early eighteenth century, Virginia had transformed from a society with slaves to a slave society • In 1705, the House of Burgesses enacted strict slave codes • Notions of Freedom • From the start of American slavery, blacks ran away and desired freedom • Settlers were well aware that the desire for freedom could ignite the slaves to rebel

  13. V. The New England Way • The Rise of Puritanism • Puritanism emerged from the Protestant Reformation in England • Puritans believed that the Church of England retained too many elements of Catholicism • Puritans considered religious belief a complex and demanding matter, urging believers to seek the truth by reading the Bible and listening to sermons • Puritans followed the teachings of John Calvin • Many Puritans immigrated to the New World in hopes of establishing a Bible Commonwealth that would eventually influence England • Puritans were governed by a “moral liberty”

  14. V. The New England Way (con’t) • The Pilgrims at Plymouth • Pilgrims sailed in 1620 to Cape Cod aboard the Mayflower • Adult men signed the Mayflower Compact before going ashore • Squanto provided valuable help to the Pilgrims and the first Thanksgiving was celebrated in 1621

  15. V. The New England Way (con’t) • The Great Migration • The Massachusetts Bay Company was charted in 1629 by London merchants wanting to further the Puritan cause and to turn a profit from trade with the Indians • New England settlement was very different compared to the Chesapeake colonies • New England had a more equal balance of men and women • New England enjoyed a longer life expectancy • New England had more families • New England enjoyed a healthier climate

  16. V. The New England Way (con’t) • The Puritan Family • Puritans reproduced the family structure of England with men at the head of the household • Women were allowed full church membership and divorce was legal, but a woman was expected to obey her husband fully • Puritans believed that a woman achieved genuine freedom by fulfilling her prescribed social role and embracing subjection to her husband’s authority

  17. V. The New England Way (con’t) • Government and Society in Massachusetts • Massachusetts was organized into self-governing towns • Each town had a Congregational church and a school • To train an educated ministry, Harvard College was established in 1636 • The freemen of Massachusetts elected their governor • Church government was decentralized • Full church membership was required to vote in colony-wide elections • Church and colonial government were intricately linked

  18. V. The New England Way (con’t) • Puritan Liberties • Puritans defined liberties by social rank, producing a rigid hierarchical society justified by God’s will • The Body of Liberties affirmed the rights of free speech and assembly and equal protection for all

  19. VI. New England Divided • Roger Williams • A young Puritan minister, Williams preached that any citizen ought to be free to practice whatever form of religion he chose • Williams believed that it was essential to separate church and state • Williams was banished from Massachusetts in 1636 and he established Rhode Island • Rhode Island was truly a beacon of religious freedom and democratic government • Other former members of Massachusetts included New Haven and Hartford, which joined to become the colony of Connecticut in 1662

  20. VI. New England Divided (con’t) • The Trials of Anne Hutchinson • Hutchinson was a well-educated, articulate woman who charged that nearly all the ministers in Massachusetts were guilt of faulty preaching • Hutchinson was placed on trial in 1637 for sedition • On trial she spoke of divine revelations • She and her followers were banished • As seen with Williams and Hutchinson, Puritan New England was a place of religious persecution • Quakers were hanged in Massachusetts • Religious tolerance violated “moral liberty”

  21. VI. New England Divided (con’t) • Puritans and Indians • Colonial leaders had differing opinions about the English right to claim Indian land • To New England’s leaders, the Indians represented both savagery and temptation • The Connecticut General court set a penalty for anyone who chose to live with the Indians • No real attempt to convert the Indians was made by the Puritans in the first two decades • Colonists warred against the Pequots in 1637, exterminating the tribe

  22. VII. The New England Economy • Merchants • Most migrants were textile craftsmen and farmers • Fishing and timber were exported, but the economy centered on family farms • Per capita wealth was equally distributed compared to the Chesapeake • A powerful merchant class rose up, which occasionally clashed with the church

  23. VII. The New England Economy (con’t) • The Half-Way Covenant • By 1650, the church had to deal with the third generation of the Great Migration • In 1662, the Half-Way Covenant was a compromise for the grandchildren of the Great Migration, granting half-way membership into the church

  24. European Settlement in the Chesapeake, ca. 1650 • pg. 56 European Settlement in the Chesapeake, ca. 1650

  25. European Settlement in New England, ca. 1640 • pg. 67 European Settlementin New England, ca. 1640

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  34. http://www.wwnorton.com/foner/ Go to website

  35. End chap. 2 This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 2 Give Me Liberty! An American History by Eric Foner W. W. Norton & CompanyIndependent and Employee-Owned

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