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Week 2

Week 2. Punctuation Rules You Must Never Overlook. Punctuation is a crucial aspect of any language. It can make a string of random words meaningful. Punctuation rules are necessary to convey the right meaning. Rule 1: Using commas.

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Week 2

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  1. Week 2 Punctuation Rules You Must Never Overlook

  2. Punctuation is a crucial aspect of any language. It can make a string of random words meaningful. Punctuation rules are necessary to convey the right meaning.

  3. Rule 1: Using commas • Commas are one of the most important and most frequently used punctuation marks (separator) that are easily misplaced in a sentence, giving it a completely different meaning. Let’s eat, grandpa.Let’s eat grandpa. See that?

  4. While introducing active speech in a sentence, you must use a comma to separate a quote from the subsequent sentence but never when the sentence that precedes the quote. • Example:  • “Stop the car,” he said. • He said “Stop the car”. 

  5. An appositive comma is often missed out in the flow while writing a sentence. It goes unnoticed at first, but the flaw is visible when you give the sentence a closer look. • An appositive comma comes after an inessential part of a sentence • Example: • I asked Jim, who’s my friend, to come over. 

  6. The Oxford comma appears when a series of items are stated and is used at the end of the series, especially to avoid confusion. • Example:  • My favorite snacks are fries, rolls, bagels, cheese and crackers, and donuts. 

  7. Rule 2: Using Colon andSemicolon • A colon (:) is a punctuation used before the start of an explanation, series of items or a quotation. • A semicolon (;) acts like a comma and is used to give a longer pause before a sentence.

  8. Never start the sentence that follows a colon with a capital letter unless it’s a quote with a quotation, or a combination of two or more words that complete a sentence. • Example 1:  • You’re required to buy the following things: curd, bread, flour, and butter.

  9. Use a semicolon to connect two independent clauses if one or more commas are already used in the first clause. • Example: • You may think I don’t care, but I will come over soon; and that’s a promise.

  10. Rule 3: Using M Dash, N Dash, andHyphen • The M Dash (or em-dash) is the longest of the dash symbols that shows an interruption in the sentence. • Example:  When I picked up the cans—all 6 of them—I noticed that one was leaking.

  11. The N Dash (or en-dash) is shorter than the M Dash and is used to separate a time period or indicate a range. • Example: 2012–2016, pages 50–55, etc.

  12. The hyphen is a small dash that is used to break connecting words, compound verbs, nouns and adjectives. • Example:  Two-bedroom apartment, State-of-the-art security, etc.

  13. Rule 4: Using Quotations (double and single) • Quotations (“”) are the most useful punctuation marks that find their place in both formal and informal writing. • There’s a confusion among writers about when to use single quotation marks. In British English, the writers mostly use the single quotations, while American English uses the double.

  14. While using quotations, any other punctuation mark that comes before a quote in a sentence must be outside the quotations and a punctuation that comes after the quote must be within the quotations. • Example: He said “I’ll never see you again!” and left. 

  15. single quotations should be used when there is a title or a quote within a quote. • Example 1:  The teacher asked “Did you all write the book report on ‘The Lord Of The Flies?’”  • Example 2:  Mom told me “Your dad had called and he says ‘tell Tim not to go out today.’”

  16. Abbreviations for Courtesy Titles and Academic Degrees • Mr. = Mister • Mrs. = Mistress (pronounced “missus”) • Ms. = (pronounced “miss” or “miz”) • Sr. = Senior • Jr. = Junior • Dr. = Doctor • Mr. Green asked Ms. Grey if she had met Dr. Jekyl. (American style) • Mr Green asked Ms Grey if she had met Dr Jekyl. (British style)

  17. The most common academic degree abbreviations include: • B.S. = Bachelor of science • B.A. = Bachelor of Arts • M.A. = Master of Arts • M.B.A. = Master of Business Administration • Ph.D. = Doctor of Philosophy • The periods are optional with abbreviations of academic degrees. • When an academic degree is used like a title, it follows a person’s name and is set off by commas: Molly Beagle, Ph.D., runs the canine cognition lab at Stanford University.

  18. Latin Abbreviations • Use periods with these abbreviations. • e.g.: exempli gratia It means “for example.”  • i.e.: id est It means “that is.”  • etc.: et cetera It means “and so forth.”

  19. References https://howtospell.co.uk/6-punctuation-rules https://www.thoughtco.com/mechanicscomposition-term-1691304 https://www.kent.ac.uk/learning/resources/sudyguides/grammarspellingandpunctuation.pdf https://www.ocr.org.uk/Images/168843-the-ocr-guide-to-spelling-punctuation-and-grammar-spag-.pdf https://www.wikihow.com/Sample/Quotation-Marks-Usage-Chart

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