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  2. Self-determination theoryis an organismic theory Not a social-cognitive theory

  3. Social-cognitive theories are incentive-based People will engage in behaviours to theextent that they feel capable of achievingdesirable outcomes People are active organisms to the extentthat they seek to achieve desirable outcomes

  4. Social-cognitive theories However, they are still driven by outcomeexpectancies Expectancies are shaped by the social environment

  5. Organismic theories The organism is anactive systemwith aninherent propensity for growth and theresolution of inconsistencies When functioning optimally it displaysan orderly regulation and integrationamong its parts

  6. Organismic theories Organismic development entails bothincreasing diversification and integration When functioning optimally, behaviours areengaged in that promote diversification andintegration The organism has needs that when satisfiedpromote diversification and integration

  7. The organism becomesincreasingly morecomplex and diversified And becomes increasinglyindividualised But maintains its integrity Only does this when itsneeds are satisfied

  8. Organismic principles and psychological growth The synthetic principle (Freud) Individuation (Jung) Actualising tendency (Maslow) Cognitive organisation (Piaget)

  9. Organismic principles in Piaget’sdevelopmental theory Cognitive development involves a progressive differentiation of cognitive elements and the assimilation andaccommodation of experiences into organised, coherent structures

  10. Piaget’s developmental theory Cognitive development is facilitated by environments that provide situations that require adaptation (through assimilation and accommodation)

  11. Social-cognitive theories assume that: Behaviour is influenced by beliefs about reward contingencies (expectancies) Expectancies are shaped by the social environment There is no inherent integrative or growth tendency

  12. Implications for intervention Social-cognitive approach:Shaping, training, modifying, controlling Organismic approach:Facilitating, supporting, nurturing

  13. Implications for intervention: Organismic approach In clinical settings, clients usually present with a need to resolve inconsistencies The therapist’s job is to facilitate the naturalintegrative tendency to help the client resolvethese inconsistencies

  14. Self-determination theory posits an innateorganisational tendency toward growth,integration of the self, and the resolutionof psychological inconsistency Individuals seek to extend themselves andto integrate what they experience The principle of organismic integration

  15. The integrative tendency requires thesatisfaction of certain psychological needs: To feel competent To feel self-determining (autonomous) To feel related

  16. The nature of needs in SDT SDT is not a drive theory Drive theories posit that the set point ofthe organism isequilibrium or satiation Needs are understood as deficiencies In SDT the set point is growth-oriented

  17. SELF-DETERMINATIONTHEORY Comprises three sub-theories: Cognitive evaluation theory How events influence intrinsic motivation Organismic integration theory The development of self-determination Causality orientations theory Individual differences

  18. Competence The need to feel that one can reliablyproduce desired outcomes and/oravoid negative outcomes

  19. Competence Competence requires: 1. An understanding of the relationshipbetween a behaviour and its consequences Outcome expectations Strategy beliefs, (Skinner, 1995)

  20. Competence Competence requires: 2. A need to feel capable of successfullyengaging in the behaviour Efficacy expectations Capacity beliefs (Skinner, 1995).

  21. CET: Events influence a person’s intrinsicmotivation to the extent that they affectperceptions of competence within thecontext of some self-determination

  22. .86*** .17 ** .87*** .15 * .84*** .35 ** Markland & Hardy (1997) Interest- Enjoyment Self-Determination Pressure- Tension Perceived Competence Effort- Importance

  23. Self-determination, perceived competence and interest-enjoymentMarkland (1999) High Self-Determination Low Self-Determination High Interest - enjoyment Low Low High PerceivedCompetence

  24. Autonomy Autonomy relates to the feeling that one isacting in accord with one’s sense of self When acting autonomously, individuals feelthat they are causal agents with respect totheir actions A sense of choosing rather than feelingcompelled or controlled

  25. Freedom is the right to choose: the right to create for oneself the alternatives of choice. Without the possibility of choice, and the exercise of choice, a man is not a man but a member, an instrument, a thing.

  26. Internally versus externally imposed control In SDT, the central issue in autonomy is the experience of freedom from pressure,regardless of who is imposing the pressure

  27. Internally versus externally imposed control "One can be as tyrannical toward oneself as others can be. The issue is not so much whether the source of control is oneself or another, but whether or not one is being controlled" Deci & Ryan (1985)

  28. Internally versus externally imposed control We can pressurise ourselves into acting ‘I must…’, ‘I have to…’ ‘I ought to…’ Demands imposed on oneself

  29. Self-control procedures Self-monitoring Self-reinforcement Self-punishment Stimulus controlGoal-setting

  30. Atkins et al. (1984)Self-control of exercise Behaviour modification programme aimed at‘developing self-control’ Self-reinforcement contingent on daily walking A number of participants dropped out becausethey ‘did not like to be regimented’

  31. Internally informational versusinternally controlling regulation To regulate one's own behaviour in a controllingfashion leads to tension and pressure to perform.To regulate one's behaviour in an informationalfashion allows freedom from pressure and theexperience of choice

  32. The Jekyll & Hyde nature of goals (Burton, 1992) Goals may be a positive motivational force,directing attention to the task and mobilizingeffort. On the other hand, they may be a source ofstress because they represent the standardsby which individuals define failure as well assuccess.

  33. Controlling Informational I must exercise to ...lose weight, look good,prevent heart disease, etcLack of choice/ Pressure Task MasterySocial AffiliationEnjoyment Choice/Competence Self-Determination Self-Determination Reasons for Exercising

  34. WeightManagement Appearance Self-determination mediates the effects ofexercise motives on intrinsic motivation Markland (1999) Enjoyment Recreation Affiliation Self- Determination IntrinsicMotivation HealthPressures Ill-HealthAvoidance

  35. WeightManagement Appearance HealthPressures Self-determination mediates the effects ofexercise motives on intrinsic motivation Markland (1999) Enjoyment Recreation Affiliation Self- Determination IntrinsicMotivation Ill-HealthAvoidance

  36. Enjoyment .36* Recreation .39* Affiliation .20* -.15* WeightManagement IntrinsicMotivation -.14* Appearance -.14* HealthPressures .06 ns Ill-HealthAvoidance Self-determination mediates the effects ofexercise motives on intrinsic motivation Markland (1999) .84* Self- Determination Chi Sq 28 = 31.11, p = .31; rmsea = .02;srmr = .06; NNFI = .99

  37. Internally versus externally imposed control The boundary between internal andexternal is not the skin Behavioural regulation that emanatesfrom within the individual is notnecessarily motivationally adaptive

  38. Internally versus externally imposed control Autonomy requires that engagementin an activity is freely chosen inaccordance with one’s other goalsand values

  39. Autonomy is not independence Autonomy relates to the feeling that one isacting in accord with one’s sense of selfand values One’s sense of self and values are largelydetermined by social influences To the extent that one has assimilatedthe values of significant others one canstill be autonomous

  40. Relatedness The need to feel close to others andemotionally secure in one’s relationships The sense that significant others careabout one’s well-being

  41. Relatedness During infancy, more securelyattached children demonstratemore exploratory behavioursthan less well attached children(e.g. Bowlby, 1976)

  42. Relatedness Relatedness provides a securebase that makes the expressionof the innate growth tendencymore likely and more robust (Deci & Ryan, 2000)

  43. The facilitating environment The social environment can facilitate orthwart the integrative tendency to theextent that the psychological needs arenurtured or impeded

  44. The facilitating environment When the social environment providesfor the nurturance of psychological needs,the person will move towards integrationand a unified sense of self, and developthe personal resources for engaging inadaptive self-regulation of behaviour(Deci & Ryan, 2000)

  45. The facilitating environment When the social environment is perceivedas controlling, over-challenging andrejecting of one’s needs the integrativetendency will be thwarted, often leadingto defensive behaviours and behaviouraland psychological withdrawal (Deci & Ryan, 2000)

  46. Internalisation of behavioural regulation The natural process by which individualstransform socially-sanctioned activitiesinto personally endorsed values andself-regulationsDeci & Ryan (2000)

  47. Internalisation of behavioural regulation Individuals assimilate and reconstituteexternal regulations so that they canbe self-determined when enacting them Deci & Ryan (2000)

  48. Internalisation of behavioural regulation Not merely conforming to social norms When fully internalised, a regulation is notonly ‘taken in’ but is transformed andsynthesised, so that it is congruent withthe person’s other goals, values andsense of self

  49. Non-Self Determined Amotivation External Introjected Identified Integrated Intrinsic Regulation Regulation Regulation Regulation Regulation IncreasingSelf-Determination The self-determination continuum Degrees of self-determination in behavioural regulation