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Maroon: incsive (bears the incisors) Blue : Nasal PowerPoint Presentation
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Maroon: incsive (bears the incisors) Blue : Nasal

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Maroon: incsive (bears the incisors) Blue : Nasal

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Maroon: incsive (bears the incisors) Blue : Nasal

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  1. Maroon: incsive (bears the incisors) Blue : Nasal Orange: Maxillary (bears the canine, pre-molars and molar teeth and the maxillary sinuses) Red: Frontal Bone Light purplePurple: Pareital Gold: Interpareital Light Blue – Occipital Green: Temporal Yellow: Lacrimal Grey: Palantine Pink: Basisphenoid (note there is disagreement in the various texts. Dyce indicates the region in pink rostral/dorsal to the rostralalar foramen is presphenoid Dark Purple: Zygomatic bone Brown : Pterygoid • RostralAlar Foramen • Maxillary artery • Maxillary branch of the trigeminal - Optic canal – optic nerve passes • Infraorbital Canal • Carries infraorbital branch of the maxillary branch of trigeminal • Orbital fissure • opthalmic (V, sensory) branch of the trigeminal (V, mixed) - (from trigeminal ganglion. enters orbital fissure via round foramen internally) • Round foramen: Maxillary division of trigeminal n (CN Vii) en route to • alar canal • Branches • Lacrimal • Frontal • Nasociliary • Occolomotor(III, motor) – (from motor nuclues and paraympathetic nucleus • Dorsal, medial, ventral recti • Ventral oblique • Levator of upper eye • Via ciliary ganglion ciliary nerves innervate the ciliary and constrictor pupillae muscles • Trochlear (IV, motor) – from tegmentum • Innervates dorsal oblique • Abducent– (VI, motor) - from caudal brainstem • Innervates: • Lateral rectus • retractor

  2. trochlear Abducent *not shown: retractor Occulomotor

  3. Maroon: incsive (bears the incisors) Blue : Nasal Orange: Maxillary (bears the canine, pre-molars and molar teeth Red: Frontal Bone Light Purple: Pareital Gold: Interpareital Light Blue – Occipital

  4. Foramen Lacerum • The internal carotid artery passes from the jugular through the carotid canal, exits the skull here, loops back on itself and re-enters • According to Dr. Anderson carnivores have a foramen lacerum (opening of carotid canal) Maroon: Incisive Orange: Maxillary Grey: Palantine Brown: Pterygoid Pink : Basisphenoid Pink with yellow outline : Presphenoid Light Green: Vomer Light Blue: Occipital Dark Green: Temporal Zygomatic: Purple PetrotoccipitalFissure Exists for the chorda tympani of the facial nerve which join the mandibular nerve Palatine Fissure • Lesser Palatine Foramen • Lesser palatine nerve and artery • Greater palatine foramen • Greater palatine nerve, artery vein

  5. Stylomastoid Foramen • Point of exit for facial nerve • Facial Nerve (VII, somatic & visceral efferent, visceral afferent and special visceral afferent) – arising from the trapezoid body near VIII • Stapedial nerve, Geniculate Ganglion, Greater petrosalnerve, and Chorda Tympani branch off facial nerve WITHIN the SKULL and do not exit the stylomastoid foramen. • Internal and caudal auricular nerves • Ear and hyoid • Auriculopalpebral • Levatorpalpebraesuperioris • Muscles of the auricle • Dorsal and ventral buccal branches • Cervical branch Temporal Crest Nuchal Crest External auditory meatus Tympanic bulla Point of stylohyoid articulation • Retroarticular foramen • Retroarticular veins leave and join maxillary vein

  6. Fossa for lacrimal sac • Caudal palantine foramen • Greaterpalantine Nerve • Major palantine Vein • Major palantine Artery • Maxillary foramen • Sphenopalantine • Carries a branch Caudal nasal nerve (from maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve (V) • Sphenopalatine Artery and vein

  7. Ethmoid foramen • carries a branch of the opthalmic nerve (V) Retroarticular process • Foramen Ovale • Mandibular nerve – (V, mixed) • Caudal alar foramen • Maxillary vein & artery

  8. Nuchal crest • Occipital condyle • Para-occipital condyl • Hypoglossal Cannal • Carries the hypoglossal nerve(XII, motor) • Originats in medulla oblongata • Innervates intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue • Tympano-occipital Fissure • In horses this is fused with the foramen ovale • Jugular foramen • IN DOGS THE INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY ENTERS HERE, GOES THROUGH THE CAROTID CANAL AND OUT THE FORAMEN LACERUM, DOES A LOOP AND RE-ENTERS • Entry of the internal carotid artery • Sigmoid Venus Sinus • In dogs the Internal carotid artery • Glossopharyngeal (IX, Mixed) • Sinus branch • Carotid sinus –Baroreceptors • Cartotid body – chemoreceptors • Pharyngeal branch • Lingual branch • Gustation • Glands of soft palate • Vagus X (somatic and visceral efferent, visceral afferent, special visceral afferent) • Accessory XI (somatic & visceral efferent, visceral afferent) –from first 5 cervical spinal nerves (spinal root) and a cranial root) • Dorsal branch • Brachiocephalicus • Ommotransversarius • Trapezius • Ventral Branch • Sternocephalicus • Accessory XI (Somatic & Visceral efferent, visceral afferent) – gains roots from first 5 cervical spinal nerves and a cranial root Condylar Canal • Foramen magnum • Entrance of spinal chord • Entrance of spinal roots of accessory nerve

  9. Zygomatic processes of the frontal bone • Turbinate bones • Covered with respiratory epithelium (ciliated, psuedostratified, columnar epithelium) to form conchae

  10. Coronoid Process Mandibularsymphasis Condylar Process Angular process • Mandibular foramen • Point of entrance for inferior alveolar vessles and nerve

  11. Mental foramina • Exit point for mental branches of inferior alveolar vessels and nerve