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African-American Voting. By: Casey Kyles & Destinee Blow . Plessy v s. Ferguson .
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African-American Voting By: Casey Kyles & Destinee Blow
Plessy vs. Ferguson Plessy vs. Ferguson was a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States concerning racial segregation. In this 1896 ruling, the court established the policy of "separate but equal" public facilities for blacks and whites. The decision formed the basis of widespread segregation in the South for over 50 years.
Segregation Segregation is the separation of groups of people by custom or by law. It is often based on differences of race, religion, wealth, or culture After the Civil War ended, the northern states attempted to influence equality among the races throughout the South. The Reconstruction Act of 1867 and the Fifteenth Amendment of the United States granted African Americans the right to vote in the United States. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 deemed racial
Segregation cont. segregation illegal in any accommodations, and federal troops throughout the South attempted to enforce this law A series of Jim Crow laws began to be passed throughout the states, starting in 1876. These Jim Crow laws established “de jure” racial segregation in all public facilities.
Exodusters Exodusters were African American pioneers who migrated from Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas in the years following the American Civil War (1861-1865). Most were former slaves who faced violence and discrimination in their old homes. The Exodusters took their name from the Book of Exodus in the Bible. The book describes the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, where they had been slaves.
Disfranchisement Disfranchisementdis|fran|chise|ment «dihs FRAN chyz muhnt», noun. 1. To deprive of a privilege, an immunity, or a right of citizenship, especially the right to vote; disenfranchise. 2. To deprive (a corporation, for example) of a privilege or franchise. In the next few slides there will be examples of disfranchisement.
Poll Tax • In the United States, poll taxes came into effect in southern states between 188 and 1910. • It resulted in the disfranchising of many blacks as well as poor whites, because payment of the tax was a requirement for voting. • It was ruled unconstitutional in 1964 because it violated equality rights • The 24th amendment eventually prohibited the poll tax as a qualification for voting in federal elections
African American voters1890-1900 • 1890- this is the year when the poll taxes spread and resulted in a severe decrease in African American voter turnout. • In Louisiana, black voters were cut from 130,000 to 1,300 in a six year period • Many Black southerners migrated north for better educational and economic opportunities • As the black education declined so did their political influence
Literacy test • These tests were created to prevent blacks from voting because most of them were illiterate. • It also hindered some poor whites at one point because some were uneducated. • There were other different forms of testing in different states to prevent blacks from voting such as jelly bean tests where blacks would have to guess how many jelly beans in a jar in order to vote. • The federal voting rights act of 165 helped put an end to the discrimination of voter’s eligibility
Grandfather Clause • Enacted in 1898 and lasted until 1915 • Originated in Louisiana and worked its way into laws and constitutions in 7 other states by 1910 • Purpose was to negate the 15th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution which allowed black men to vote • stated that “all men or lineal descendants of men who were voters before 1867 did not have to meet the educational, property, or tax requirements for voting then in existence” which basically meant all whites could vote with no restrictions.
Grandfather Clause (cont) • Formed in 1909, The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), mounted the first legal challenge to the Grandfather Clause. • The court case, Guinn v. United States, reached the U.S. Supreme Court in 1915. The Court ruled that Grandfather Clauses in Maryland and Oklahoma were unsound and invalid because they violated the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Sources • http://answers.yourdictionary.com/history/US-history/when-did-segregation-start.html • http://worldbookonline.com/student/search?st1=examples+of+segration+in+1896&searchprop=WBS http://www.blackpast.org/?q=aah/grandfather-clause-1898-1915 http://www.google.com/images http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0839551.html