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Lighting. How to light a set for Television. Use Professional Terms. Lighting Instrument: The device into which a lamp is installed to provide illumination on the set. Lamp: The part of a lighting instrument that glows when electricity is supplied

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  1. Lighting How to light a set for Television

  2. Use Professional Terms • Lighting Instrument: The device into which a lamp is installed to provide illumination on the set. • Lamp: The part of a lighting instrument that glows when electricity is supplied • When referring to a lighting instrument you will only say “instrument”. i.e. “this instrument needs a new lamp”

  3. Light has 2 definitions • “Lights” refer to the collection of all instruments used in the studio or on location. • “Light” also can refer to the illumination created by turning on a lamp

  4. TYPES OF LIGHT • Defined by the types of shadows they create. -Hard or soft • Hard light: Creates a sharp distinct, and very sharp shadow. I.e. a hard light will create an almost perfect shadow of the image it is shining on. • Soft Light: Creates indistinct shadow. A soft light lights shadow will make the shadow unrecognizable.

  5. Types of Lighting Instruments • Spotlight: A hard light instrument. (can be fixed to a pipe on the ceiling or wall, place on a stand, or very moveable. • Frenel: (“fruh-nel”): Also a hard light instrument. It is lightweight and easily focused. • Flood light: A soft light instrument that provides lighting in a large area. “Scoop” the name of the most popular flood light used on a set. • Convertible spotlights: On the back there is a switch that makes a light go from a spot or a flood depending if you want a hard or soft shadow.

  6. Accessories • Want a hard shadow, but not circular? • Barndoors: Fully moveable black metal flaps attached to the front of a lighting instrument used to block or reshape the light. Be careful these doors get VERY hot. • On a budget? Use heavy duty foil. • Flag: Use a flag between the object and the light if you are getting a reflection from shiny objects on a set.

  7. Fluorescent Instruments • Previous slides we talked about incandescent lamps. • They now make Fluorescent instruments that can be used for the same purpose. • Why use Fluorescent. Less Expensive, Energy saver, lasts much longer. • Incandescent lamps are much brighter, and should be used on set, but a mix of lighting can be much more efficient.

  8. Support for Lighting Instruments • Floor stand: A tripod or quadripod that can have a lighting instrument attached. • Grid: A pipe system that hangs from the ceiling. • C-Clamp: a clamp in the shape of a C that allows for the lights to be attached to the grid. • Raceway: beside the grid on the ceiling is the raceway where the lights actually get there power from.

  9. Colored Light • Gel: A heat resistant, thick plastic sheet placed in front of a lighting instrument to turn white light from a lamp into a colored light.

  10. Lighting Intensity • Control of intensity: Move Instrument further or closer, Replace Lamp with lower wattage. • Diffusion device: A device that is placed in front of a lighting instrument to soften intensity. • Scrim: A type of diffusion device that is transparent. • Use Bounce Lighting: a technique where a lighting instrument is not pointed directly at the subject of the shot, but the light is bounced off another object. • Use a dimmer: A device attached to the power control, decreasing the amount of energy given to the light.

  11. Planning the Set Lighting • Light Plot: a diagram developed by the lighting designer that indicates placement of lighting instruments. • LD (lighting designer) begins to light the set. • Very tedious process getting the lights just as you want them.

  12. TV Lighting Techniques • Three Point Lighting- creates the appearance of 3 dimensionality on two-dimensional Television screen • Key • Fill • Back

  13. Key Light • Main source of illumination on person or object

  14. Fill Light • The lighting instrument that is placed opposite the key light to provide illumination on the other side of the talent’s face or object.

  15. Back Light • The lighting instrument placed above and behind, the 12 o'clock position, the talent or object in a shot to separate the talent or object from background. • (Don’t be confused with background light. The background light will be pointed at the background.)

  16. Four-Point Lighting • 2 key and 2 fill. (4 corners) • Key Lights are positioned diagonally opposite from eachother. • Fill lights are put in the other 2 corners. • Advantage over 3 point -easier to set up. Disadvantage you need an extra light!

  17. Cross Key Lighting • Cross between 3 and 4 point. • Used for more than on person or object. • Fill light in front • Key light 1 and 2 in front sides • Back Light 3 and 4 in back corners. • Always check the lighting in the monitors.

  18. Lighting Wrap-up • Don’t make lighting an after thought. It is an essential part of your video.

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