Thoughts are personal comments on life, sometimes secretive, other times insulting. Thoughts are an individual’s narration of life and the world around them. They are, essentially, pieces of dialogue that are not spoken nor directed to any person in particular. Short Story ‘Trapped’ by NormahBinti Othman • ‘THOUGHT’
Punctuation Various forms of punctuation have been used to define introspection. From time to time, writers use quotation marks to identify a character's thoughts. Example: Paragraph 2 line 1 and 2 “You are very lucky, Ck Temah! Your daughter is going to marry a rich man today.”
Attribution Tags To identify the speaker The readers will know who's doing the thinking Example: Page 50 Paragraph 5 Line 5 She knew, her husband had guessed the reason why she wanted to live separately.
Tense A character's thoughts may be narrated in either present tense or past tense. Most stories are written in past tense using either first person or third. When a story is narrated in third person and past tense, introspection may be presented in first person present tense. Example: Page 49 Paragraph 1 Line 8 She felt sad. She had always felt like that on rainy days, ever since she stayed alone in the apartment for the last two years.
Direct Introspection Uses the character's exact words. Use the direct method to convey a character's thoughts when you feel the exact inner words of thought will have greater impact. Example: Page 50 Paragraph 4 Line 2 Furthermore, she knew very well that her husband would not let her go.
Verbs of Thought Used in attribution tags or within the introspection itself. Examples of thinking verbs include: think, hope, wonder, reason, realize, and decide. Example: Page 51 Paragraph 10 Line 3 Farizah wondered what would be his reaction if he knew her decision.
Narrative DistanceIntimate Intimate perceives the world through the character's mind and senses. Example 1: Page 50 Paragraph 4 Line 1 She had heard a lot about the kadi. Example 2: Page 50 Paragraph 5 Line 1 After years and years of pondering, Farizah decided to live separately from her husband.