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Lithuanian Military Academy. NATO Non Article 5 Crisis Response Operations and PSO concept. CONTENT. Introduction United Nations NATO Article V Non Article V Crisis Response Operations Pease Support Operations Bosnia and Herzegovina Quiz Questions. REFERENCES.
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Lithuanian Military Academy • NATO Non Article 5 • Crisis Response Operations and PSO concept MAJ. MINDAUGAS STACKEVICIUS
CONTENT Introduction United Nations NATO Article V Non Article V Crisis Response Operations Pease Support Operations Bosnia and Herzegovina Quiz Questions
REFERENCES AJP-3.4 Non Article 5 Crisis Response Operations. AJP-3.4.1 Peace Support Operations. FM 3-07 Stability Operations. FM 3-07.31 Peace Operations. JWP 3-50 The Military Contribution to PSO.
INTRO “Peace-keeping is not a job for soldiers, but only soldiers can do it” Dag Hammarskjöld
INTRO Non Article V Crisis Response Operations “NA5CROs can be described as multifunctional operations which encompass those political, military and civil activities, initiated and executed in accordance with international law, including international humanitarian law, contributing to conflict prevention and resolution, and crisis management in the pursuit of declared Alliance objectives.” AJP-3.4 No. 0005
INTRO PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS “PSOs are multi-functional operations, conducted impartially, normally in support of an internationally recognisedorganisationsuch as the UN or Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), involving military forces and diplomatic and humanitarian agencies. PSO are designed to achieve a long-termpolitical settlement or other specified conditions. AJP-3.4.1 No. 0202
UNITED NATIONSHISTORY 12 June 1941 - The Declaration of St. James's Palace. The Saint James Palace in London
UNITED NATIONSHISTORY 14 August 1941 - The Atlantic Charter President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill on the U.S.S. August, 14 August 1941.
UNITED NATIONSHISTORY 1943 - Moscow and Teheran Conference
UNITED NATIONSHISTORY 1944-1945 - Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta Dumbarton Oaks
UNITED NATIONSHISTORY 1945 - San Francisco Conference
POLITICAL CONTROL • United Nations • Organisationfor Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) • European Union • NATO: • North Atlantic Council • The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO • North Atlantic Treaty was signed on 4 April 1949. • The organization constitutes a system of collective defence. • 28 member states. • 22 countries participate in NATO's “Partnership for Peace”. • 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs.
NATOPolitical and Military Alliance • NATO’s essential purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means. • POLITICAL - NATO promotes democratic values and encourages consultation and cooperation on defence and security issues to build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict. • MILITARY - NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military capacity needed to undertake crisis-management operations. These are carried out under Article 5 of the Washington Treaty - NATO’s founding treaty - or under a UN mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organizations.
NATODecisions and consultations • NATO provides a unique opportunity for member countries to consult and take decisions on security issues at all levels and in a variety of fields. • A “NATO decision” is the expression of the collective will of all 28 member countries since all decisions are taken by consensus. • Each day, hundreds of civilian and military experts and officials come to NATO HQs to exchange information, share ideas and help prepare decisions when needed, in cooperation with national delegations and the staff at NATO HQs.
NATOOperations and missions • Afghanistan • Kosovo • Counter-piracy • Monitoring the Mediterranean • Supporting the African Union
NATOWORKING STRUCTURE MEMBER COUNTRIES MILITARY Representatives NATO Delegations North Atlantic Council Nuclear Planning Group MILITARY Committee SECRETARY GENERAL Subordinate Committees Allied Command Transformation Allied Command Operations
NATO’S essential core tasks and principles Organization’s core tasks: (NATO’s Strategic Concept 2010) Collective defence Crisis Management Cooperative security
Security through Crisis Management NATO’s Strategic Concept 2010 “Crises and conflicts beyond NATO’s borders can pose a direct threat to the security of Alliance territory and populations. NATO will therefore engage, where possible and when necessary, to prevent crises, manage crises, stabilize post-conflict situations and support reconstruction”.
MILITARY IMPLEMENTATION The Alliance’s Military Operations: Article 5 Collective Defence Non-Article 5 Crisis Response
NATO MILITARY OPERATIONS IN-/ OUTSIDE NATO AOR NATO AOR ARTICLE 5 Collective Defence “The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all […].” NON-ARTICLE 5 Crisis Response Preserve peace, prevent war, enhance security and stability
NON –ARTICLE V CRISIS RESPONSE OPERATIONS
“NA5CROs can be described as multifunctional operations which encompass those political, military and civil activities, initiated and executed in accordance with international law, including international humanitarian law, contributing to conflict prevention and resolution, and crisis management in the pursuit of declared Alliance objectives.” AJP-3.4 No. 0005 NA5CRODescription
NA5CROPrinciples Objective Perseverance Unity of Command Unity of Effort Credibility Transparency of Operations Protection Flexibility • Promotion of Co-operation and Consent • Impartiality • Use of Force • Mutual Respect • Freedom of Military Movement • Legitimacy
NA5CROPrinciples • Objective: • Direct towards clearly defined, decisive, and achievable objectives and the desired end state. • Perseverance: • Require a patient, resolute, persistent and protracted pursuit of objectives; • Unity of Command: • Clearly defined authorities, roles, and relationships. • Unity of Effort: • Need for a coherent approach that all means are directed to a common purpose between all agencies and parties (IOs, NGOs military and local authorities,); • Effective liaison, regular conferences and meetings is essential.
NA5CROPrinciples • Credibility: • Is essential to ensure mission accomplishment; • Reflects the belligerents’ assessment of the capability of the force to accomplish its mission; • Forces has to respond with professional bearing and swift. • Transparency of Operations: • Mandate, mission, political/military end states readily understood and obvious to all; • Information should be gathered and communicated through open sources, but balanced against the need to ensure the security. • Protection: • Force protection is a command responsibility in all operations.
NA5CROPrinciples • Flexibility: • Ability to adapt and move from one activity to another at short notice and with the minimum of outside assistance; • The eventual transition to a stable environment; • Forces balanced and independent interms of skills, capabilities, equipment, and logistics. • Promotion of Co-operation and Consent: • Amongst the parties are pre-requisites; • Any activity, which may result in a loss of consent, should be carefully balanced against the long-term objectives; • There may be consent at the strategic level but not necessarily at the tactical level.
NA5CROPrinciples • Impartiality: • Requires the force to act on behalf of the peace process and mandate, and not show favour or prejudice to any party; • Applies to the parties to the dispute, not to possible spoilers (e.g., terrorists or criminals); • Key: Effective communications and Transparency of Ops. • Use of Force: • Force must apply military force prudently, judiciously, and with discipline; • IAW the provisions of International Law & ROE; • ROE do not limit the inherent right of self-defence; • Limited to the degree, intensity, and duration necessary; • A single act could cause significant military and political consequences.
NA5CROPrinciples • Mutual Respect: • The respect - a consequence of its professional conduct & how it treats the local population authorities; • Respect the laws and customs of the host-nation and must be seen to be doing so; • Same principles implemented amongst the different national, cultural and ethnic elements within the formations; • Demonstrate the highest standards of discipline on and off duty. • Freedom of Military Movement: • Essential to remain free at all times to perform its duties without interference; • Restrictions firmly and swiftly resolved initially through negotiation, but if necessary, the use of force.
NA5CROPrinciples • Legitimacy: • Legitimacy is perceived by interested audiences as the legality, morality, or fairness of a set of actions; • Such audiences may include the home public, foreign nations, HN’s civil populations, and the participating forces; • If an operation is perceived as legitimate by interested audiences it will have a better chance of long-term success; • The participation of Partners broaden the basis of international support.
NA5CROPolitical Primacy All NATO non-article 5 CRO will be under the political control and strategic direction of the NAC.
1. PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS 1) Peacekeeping 2) Peace Enforcement 3) Conflict Prevention 4) Peace-making 5) Peace-building 6) Humanitarian Operations NA5CROSpectrum 2. SUPPORT OF HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS 1) Assistance for IDP’s and Refugees 2) Humanitarian Operations 3. SUPPORT OF DISASTER RELIEF 4. SEARCH AND RESCUE 5. SUPPORT TO NON-COMBATANT EVACUATION OPERATIONS 6. EXTRACTION OPERATIONS 7. MILITARY AID/SUPPORT TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES 8. ENFORCEMENT OF SANCTIONS AND EMBARGOES Other NA5CROs
NA5CROOperational Consideration A nation’s level of participation in an NA5CRO may vary in relation to its national strategic interest in the operation and resources available; therefore, national commitment to provide forces will vary accordingly and will affect the force generation process. When planning NA5CROs, initially only forces under the purview of NATO will be considered as the basis for force generation. The Political Military Framework (PMF) for NATO-led PfP operations was established in light of important Partner contributions and participation to NA5CROs.
NA5CROCommand and Control NAC MC
NA5CRONATO Response Force • Land, air, sea and special force components. • NATO Command Structure, Immediate Response Force, Joint Force. Purpose: The NRF will provide a rapid demonstration of force and the early establishment of a NATO military presence in support of an Article 5 or a non-Article 5 Crisis Response Operation.
NA5CRONATO Response Force List of tasks • Contribute to the Preservation of Territorial Integrity • Demonstrative Force Package • Peace Support Operations • Embargo Operations • Disaster Relief • Protection of critical Infrastructure • Security Operations • As part of a larger Force, the NRF could also be used to conduct Initial Entry Operations Priority tasks for NRF • Peace Support Operations • Collective Defence • Disaster Relief
NA5CRONATO Response Force The Immediate Response Force has: • a brigade-sized land component based on three Battle Groups and their supporting elements; • a maritime component based on NATO’s Standing Naval Maritime Groups and Standing Naval Mine Counter Measures Groups; • a combat air and air support component; • special forces; • a CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear) defence task force.
PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS PSO - an operation that impartially makes use of diplomatic, civiland military means, normally in pursuit of UN Charter purposes and principles, to restore or maintain peace.
- UN - Chapters Chapter VI - PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice. Chapter VII - ACTION WITH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE, BREACHES OF THE PEACE, AND ACTS OF AGGRESSION Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security.
PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS Peacekeeping Operations Peace enforcement Operations Peace support Operations (PSO) Humanitarian Operations Conflict Prevention Operations Peacebuilding Operations Peacemaking Operations
- PSO - ALLIED JOINT DOCTRINE FOR NA5CRO AJP-3.4 (A), 2010 Conflict Prevention Peace-enforcement Peace-keeping Peace-making Humanitarian Peace-building
- PSO - I - Conflict Prevention Conflict prevention activities are normally conducted in accordance with the Chapter VI of the UN Charter.They may include: diplomatic, economic, or information initiatives; actions designed to reform a country’s security sector and make it more accountable to democratic control; or deployment of forces designed to prevent or contain disputes from escalating to armed conflict. Military assets used for conflict prevention should generally be focused on the support they provide to the political and developmental efforts to mitigate the causes of tensions and unrest. This can be before the commencement of intervention, or during or after intervention in order to protect and consolidate the reform. Military activities will be tailored to meet political and developmental demands but include: early warning, surveillance, and preventative deployment.