Ionic, Metallic and Covalent Bonding Writing and Naming Formulas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ionic, Metallic and Covalent Bonding Writing and Naming Formulas
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Ionic, Metallic and Covalent Bonding Writing and Naming Formulas

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  1. Ionic, Metallic and Covalent Bonding Writing and Naming Formulas

  2. Chemical bond force that holds two atoms together opposites attract

  3. Chemical bonds are formed by: the attraction between the positive nucleus of one atom and the negative electrons of another atom or by the attraction between positive and negative ions

  4. Krypton Potassium in water Iron in oxygen

  5. Valence electrons electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds found in outermost energy level

  6. oct –

  7. Octet Rule Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons; stable noble gas configuration.

  8. Three types of bonds: • Ionic • transfer of electrons between • metal and nonmetal (or • polyatomic ion) 2. Metallic electron sea model; atoms of same metal 3. Covalent – sharing of electrons between nonmetals; may be same or different elements

  9. Ion atom, or a bonded group of atoms, that has a positive or negative charge Ionic bond electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together

  10. Positive ion formation atom loses one or more valence electrons cations

  11. Write an electron configuration for sodium. Write an electron configuration for neon. What is the only difference in the electron configurations of these two elements?

  12. Metals tend to lose electrons to form positive ions called cations. Metals lose all valence electrons so that next energy level is full.

  13. Write an electron dot notation for each metal: Magnesium Aluminum Lithium Barium Potassium Gallium

  14. Predict if each would lose or gain electrons when forming compounds: Magnesium Aluminum Lithium Barium Potassium Gallium

  15. How many electrons would each lose? Magnesium Aluminum Lithium Barium Potassium Gallium

  16. What cations would the following elements form? Write symbol and charge. Magnesium Aluminum Lithium Barium Potassium Gallium

  17. Use group number to predict charge of metal ion for representative elements only. Group 1 1+ Group 2 2+ Group 13 3+

  18. Transition metals d block; filling inner energy levels most form more than one common ion sometimes inner electrons take part in bonding

  19. Transition metals that form only one common ion: silver Ag+ zinc Zn2+

  20. Negative ion formation atom gains one or more valence electrons anion

  21. Write an electron configuration for chlorine. Write an electron configuration for argon. What is the only difference in the electron configurations of these two elements?

  22. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to form negative ions called anions. Nonmetals gain enough electrons to obtain full octet (8).

  23. Write an electron dot notation for each nonmetal: Sulfur Nitrogen Iodine Phosphorus Fluorine Oxygen

  24. Predict if each would lose or gain electrons when forming compounds: Sulfur Nitrogen Iodine Phosphorus Fluorine Oxygen

  25. How many electrons would each gain? Sulfur Nitrogen Iodine Phosphorus Fluorine Oxygen

  26. What anions would the following elements form? Write symbol and charge. Sulfur Nitrogen Iodine Phosphorus Fluorine Oxygen

  27. Use group number to predict charge on nonmetals. Group 18 0 Group 17 1- Group 16 2- Group 15 3-

  28. Writing formulas for binary ionic compounds: • Write symbol and charge for • cation and anion. Ex: lithium and oxygen 2. Use subscripts to show the ratio of ions.

  29. Cation always writtenfirst. Ionic formulas, subscripts show simplest ratio.

  30. Write formulas for the binary ionic compounds formed between the following elements: • potassium and iodine b. magnesium and chlorine c.sodium and sulfur d. aluminum and nitrogen e. aluminum and sulfur

  31. Naming binary ionic compounds: cation (metal) name of element; always written first anion (nonmetal) name of element with an ‘ide’ ending

  32. Name the binary ionic compounds indicated by the following formulas: • AgCl • ZnO • CaBr2 • SrF2 • BaO • CaCl2

  33. Some metals form more than one common ion; most of the transition metals and tin and lead.

  34. How form multiple ions? Transition metals – d electrons can take part in bonding Write noble gas notation for tin: [Kr] 5s24d105p2 Sn2+ or Sn4+

  35. The charge on the metal is written as a Roman numeral in the name of compound. Fe2+ Cl- FeCl2 iron(II) chloride Fe3+ Cl- FeCl3 iron(III) chloride

  36. Transition metals that form only one common ion: silver Ag+ zinc Zn2+

  37. Metals that form only one common ion do not need Roman numeral. NaBr sodium bromide

  38. Write the formula and name for the compounds formed between the following ions (use Roman numerals): • Cu2+ and Br - • Fe2+ and O2- • Pb2+ and Cl- • Hg2+ and S2- • Sn2+ and F- • Fe3+ and O2-

  39. Writing names with Roman numerals: • Determine total negative • charge. 2. Total negative charge equals total positive charge. • Charge on one positive ion is • Roman numeral.

  40. Ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions: Write formulas as you would for binary ionic compounds; use parentheses if adding subscript to polyatomic ion.

  41. Write formulas for the following compounds: magnesium carbonate magnesium hydroxide

  42. Write formulas for the following ionic compounds: • lithium nitrate • copper(II) sulfate • sodium carbonate • calcium nitrite • potassium perchlorate

  43. When naming compounds, do not change name of polyatomic ion.

  44. Three types of bonds: • Ionic • transfer of electrons between • metal and nonmetal (or • polyatomic ion) 2. Metallic electron sea model; atoms of same metal 3. Covalent – sharing of electrons between nonmetals; may be same or different elements

  45. Why do atoms bond? to obtain a full outer energy level; complete octet to become more stable; lower potential energy

  46. Electronegativity (EN) indicates relative ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond

  47. Metals low EN; tend to give up electrons Nonmetals high EN; tend to gain electrons

  48. What happens when two nonmetals, with similar EN, react?