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Notable Geographers

Notable Geographers. AP Human Geography. JOHN R. BORCHERT: Urban Model By: Joshua ‘The Great’ Bermudez. John Borchert : Geographer from the University of Minnesota The Urban Model explains the direct relation of evolution of American Metropolis and phases of transportation and communication.

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Notable Geographers

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  1. Notable Geographers AP Human Geography

  2. JOHN R. BORCHERT: Urban ModelBy: Joshua ‘The Great’ Bermudez • John Borchert: Geographer from the University of Minnesota • The Urban Model explains the direct relation of evolution of American Metropolis and phases of transportation and communication.

  3. Model • Shows the necessity of transportation in the development of cities. • Five Stages of Transportation • Sail-Wagon (1790-1830) • Iron Horse (Steam Engine, Steamboats, Railroad) (1830-1870) • Steel Rail (Long Railroads, National Railroad Networks) (1870-1920) • Auto-Air (Complex Gas Combustion Engine) (1920-1970) • High Tech (1970-?)

  4. Ernest Burgess Biography: Ernest Burgess was born on May 16, 1886 in Tilbury, Ontario, Canada to Edmund J. Burgess and Mary Ann Jane Wilson Burgess. He was the president of the American Sociological Society. Premise: E. W. Burgess created the concentric zone model to explain the distribution of different social groups within urban areas. The concentric zone model shows a city growing outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings. The innermost zone is called the CBD (A), and this is where nonresidential activities are concentrated. The second ring surrounding the CBD is called the zone in transition (B), and this contains industry and poorer-quality housing. This zone has many apartments, and a lot of houses for single individuals are found here.

  5. The third zone is the zone of the working-class homes (C), and it contains modest older houses occupied by stable, working-class families. • The fourth zone has newer and more spacious houses for middle-class families (D). • The last zone, the commuters’ zone (E), is continuous built-up area of the city. This zone consists of small villages and towns. Function: • Urban growth is a process of expansion and reconversion of land uses, with a tendency of each inner zone to expand in the outer zone.

  6. Weaknesses: The model is too simple and limited in historical and cultural applications The model was developed when American cities were growing very fast in demographic terms and when motorized transportation was still uncommon as most people used public transit. There were a lot of spatial differences in terms of ethnic, social and occupational status, while there were low occurrence of the functional differences in land use patterns. Strengths: It explains the location of land uses in a monocentric city. Effectiveness: The Burgess model remains useful as a concept explaining concentric urban development, as a way to introduce the complexity of urban land use and to explain urban growth in American cities in the early-mid 20th century.

  7. Judith Carney • Judith Carney spent several months studying how the rice brought from Africa affected Southern Culture in the United States and other areas where there were large plantations and African slave trade was dominant. • Her theory is supposed to explain that the movement of the rice (or other crops) into different areas with similar climates can stimulate the economy and affect the culture.

  8. Judith Carney • Her model was used to determine the accuracy of the idea that Europeans developed rice farming techniques. She concluded that this idea was incorrect and that the slaves brought from Africa developed them. • Her theory is very accurate, but is not often used outside of her book, Black Rice.

  9. Biography’s Manuel Castella, a Spanish sociologist especially associated with research on the information society, communication and globalization, led the debate in favor of spatiality initiated by Foucault and Lefebvre, and orientated it towards what are today the two great nodes of contemporary urban criticism: Globalization and mass consumption. Since 2008 he has been a member of the governing board of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. Sir Peter Geoffrey Hall, is an English town planner, urbanist and geographer. He is the Bartlett Professor of Planning and Regeneration at The Bartlett, University College London and President of both the Town and Country Planning Association and the Regional Studies Association. He is internationally renowned for his studies and writings on the economic, demographic, cultural and management issues that face cities around the globe. Hall is considered by many to be the father of the industrial enterprise zone concept, adopted by countries worldwide to develop industry in disadvantaged areas.

  10. Technopolis:a business area that brings together high-technology industries that have close links with centers of research and development. These are model industries, advanced, clean, and small, the workers of which are highly specialized. The reason behind having the Technopolises is the exploitation of the synergies generated by the physical proximity of high-technology companies. It is for this reason that it is understood that in the genesis of a Technopolis three partners must exist: The entrepreneurs, the government, and the academic world. The effectiveness of Technopolis has been positive. MIT and Harvard, two of the highest ranked schools in the nation, have attracted a lot of technology based industry as a result of this theory.

  11. AharonDolgopolskyNovember 18, 1930- July 20, 2012 Language/Culture

  12. What is he known for? He was the first to undertake a multilateral comparison of the daughter-languages of Nostratic. Dolgoposlky was Russian-Israeli linguist and one of the modern founders of comparative Nostratic linguistic, which is proposed to be the first language. Nostratic Hypothesis-a proposed language family that includes many of the indigenous language families of Eurasia.

  13. Strengths and Weaknesses • In the 1990’s, new research eliminated many doubtful parts of Illich-Svitych’s, father of the reaserch, work and discovered significant new evidence for the validity of the theory. • For example, a number of Nostratic words have been found to be more widely attested than was suspected • The Nostratic Hypothesis was used to figure out what the first language was, and is still being used to prove the theory The theory was not well accepted due to the many problems and holes presented in the research after the untimely publishing of the theory in 1966, but since then has started to become more widely accepted by linguists.

  14. Bio Clifford Geertz was born in San Francisco in 1926. He served in the US Navy during World War 2, Then got is PHD at Harvard. He then took a job teaching anthropology at the University of Chicago. Premise Culture is learned through communication of people that live in a common area. Ex: The Baptist sect of Christianity is dominant in the southeast of America, so someone growing up in the south would be exposed to that sect and more than likely become a part of it.

  15. Function This model is used to interpret culture and used to find out how certain parts of the culture developed. Effectiveness This model is very effective because people learn traditions, languages, and religions all through communication. These things make up culture.

  16. Chauncey Harris and E.L. UllmanUrban Land Use • Harris created the peripheral model, which is an urban area that consisted of an inner city surrounded by a large suburban residential and business areas that are tied together by a beltway. • Both Harris and Ullman helped to create the multiple nuclei model, which is a city that is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve. • Examples of this structure could be a port, neighborhood business center, university, airport, and a park. • This model is supposed to explain how certain businesses and stores are attracted to one area over another, like the example of how bookstores, restaurants, and families may be more attracted to a suburban residential area over a large city. • Some criticisms of the model could be disregard of height of buildings; non-existence of abrupt divisions between zones; no consideration of influence of physical relief and government policy; and the concepts may not be totally applicable to all cities with different cultural, economic and political backgrounds. • This model is good because it shows cities grow around multiple points and not just one main point.

  17. Chauncey Harris and E.L. UllmanUrban Land Use • Chauncey Harris: • He was raised in Utah and earned his degree at Brigham Young University at the age of nineteen. • For graduate school, he went to the University of Chicago, and then to the University of Oxford and the London School of Economics and finally back to the University of Chicago, where he earned his Ph.D. in 1940. • Chauncey served on the faculties of Indiana University and the University of Nebraska before returning to the University of Chicago to be a professor of geography. • E.L. Ullman • Ullman was born 1912 and died in 1976. • He was a University of Washington professor of geography. • In 1974, President Nixon appointed him to Amtrak's board of directors.

  18. Richard HartshomeBy: Paige Mandas • Lived from 1899-1992 • He completed his undergraduate studies at Princeton University (1920) and his doctorate at the University of Chicago (1924), then taught at the University of Minnesota (1924–40) and the University of Wisconsin (1945–70) • Theory used to determine boundaries • Hartshorne reasoned that certain boundaries were defined and delimited before the present-day human landscape developed.

  19. Richard Hartshome The evolution of boundaries: Antecedent-Westward expansion in the United States and Canada, on opposite sides of the 49th parallel, created two corridors of settlement, transport routes, and other features of the cultural landscape.  Superimposed-After World War II, defeated Germany was divided into two countries. boundary was strongly demarcated (as part of the Iron Curtain) to prevent an exodus from East Germany to West Germany. Subsequent-are exemplified by Belgium and its neighbors. A long-term process of adjustment produced what is on the map today, with every mile of boundary codified in international treaties. Relict- The boundary between East and West Germany, Relict boundaries are those that have ceased to function, but whose imprints are still evident on the cultural landscape.

  20. E. Adamson Hoebel E. Adamson Hoebel was born in 1906. he graduated from Columbia University and had occupations including academic and anthropologist. He died in 1993 at the age of 87 years old.

  21. “Culture is wholly the result of social inventions and is transmitted and maintained solely through communications and learning” • E. Adamson Hoebelis saying that culture is something that is carefully passed down from person to person and spread through human contacts. • This model isn't used at a specific time rather, it is a widely excepted idea. The Model E. Adamson Hoebel

  22. HomeR HOYT: the sector model • The Sector Model states that zones expand outwards from the city (or a central business district) along railroads, highways, and other transportation routes. • Hoyt theorized that cities tended to grow in wedge-shaped patterns -- or sectors -- emanating from the central business district and centered on major transportation routes. • The best housing or high income areas were closer to the CBD than the low income areas, which were located closer to the transportation routes. • Refinement of Burgess’s theory • Urban

  23. Thesectortheory • The model applies to numerous British cities. For example, if it is turned 90 degrees counter-clockwise it fits the city of Newcastle upon Tyne reasonably accurately. • This may be because of the age of the cities when transportation was a key limitation, as a general rule older cities follow the Hoyt model and more recent cities follow the Burgess (concentric zone) model. • If a city is more modern, the Sector Theory usually does not apply to it due to new forms of transportation .

  24. Ellsworth Huntington • Bio: • (1876-1947), theories were broad, visited countries and described how the climate affected each society • Theory: Environmental Determinism • Subset called Climatic Determinism • Premise: • Climate is major determinant of civilization • Ex: temperate climate of Maritime Europe produced better human conditions • Physical environment caused social development

  25. Ellsworth Huntington Continued • Function • Used to make sense of the relationship between humans and their environment • Effectiveness • Not effective • Often racist • Research was not based on direct observations • Refuted by Possibilism • Totally replaced by 1950

  26. Law of the Primate City and Rank Size Rule • Bio: developed by Mark Jefferson • Chief cartographer of the American Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, president of the American Association of Geographers • Premise: Every country has a “Primate City” (a city that dominates in economics, social factors, and politics) Rank size rule- 2nd largest city is ½ size of Primate city, 3rd largest city is 1/3 the size of the Primate city, etc.

  27. Law of the Primate City and Rank Size Rule cont. • Function: to understand why countries have cities of different sizes and what it says about their development • Effectiveness • LDCs follow the primate city rule but the rank size rule tends to fail at lower levels of hierarchy • Has an impact on quality of life for country’s inhabitants • Indicates there is not enough wealth in societies of LDCs to pay for a full variety of services

  28. Ruth Leger Sivard • Sivard studied the differences between the behaviors of men and women and she also worked for the U.S. government department of Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. • Universal averages can convey a sense of the scope of diversity. Life expectancy is a broad measure of national well-being. It shows that the average life span of women in some countries is almost double that in others. In fact, women in richer countries may hope to live 30 years or more longer than women in some of the poorer countries. Adult literacy rates  have an even wider gap between the highest and the lowest national averages.  From 99 to 100 percent in most developed countries, the proportion of adult women who are literate drops to a low of 3 percent in the least developed.  These statistics are taken into account when developing this theory.

  29. Ruth Leger Sivard • Sivard's theory was not very effective because she talks about men being the first to try unhealthy habits and this isn't always true. She only looks at the stereotype of men and women and draws her conclusions from that, so her theory is very generalized. • Premise: Women/Men GAP widens with economic progress Men are first to try unhealthy habits of progress – smoke, drink etc. Women will catch up and lower their Life Expectancy“silent revolution” is slowly gaining in strength. Women are more educated, more active economically, more successful politically than they were a few decades ago.

  30. Halford Mackinder: The Heartland Theory • The British Geographer, Mackinder, formulated the Heartland theory, which states the ruler of Europe is the ruler of all of Eurasia in 1904 • It is also called the pivot area

  31. Is the Heartland Model Effective? • It was until recently an effective model. In World War I, The Russian Revolution, and the Cold War, the model was used by the involved countries to gain power • His theory is now obsolete because of the advancement of bombers and missiles • Also, it can be disproved because two current world powers include China and the United States which aren’t in any way in control of Eurasia • It focuses mostly on land control leading to power instead of sea power which has become more important with the advancement of sea warfare

  32. Thomas Malthus & Population BIO: Thomas Malthus: Political Economic Club Opposing people against him Professor of history + economy Function: to assess population growth’s effect on the carrying capacity (max. # ppl earth that sustain) of Earth how does pop. affect ability to feed oneself? how does the graph grow?

  33. Function: population grows exponentially Function: the food grows arithmetically Prevent pop growth by: marrying later, abstaining from procreation, homosexuality Disease= positive because it keeps population down Premise: the model shows how population growth affects food (ability to feed oneself) as the population grows exponentially larger and larger. Malthus argues that this model shows the following in his Malthusian theory: -that population overtakes the land that would be developed for crops -that an increasing population would eventually diminish everyone’s ability to feed oneself -therefore, the carrying capacity of the earth would be breached Pros: -shows the “struggle of existence” which impacted Darwin’s evolution theory Cons: - fails to recognize that people have the potential to increase food supply - potential by means of science and technology - Malthus only believes that population is negative and cannot be overcome

  34. McGee Theory His model is known as Desakota. (meaning “desa” for village and “kota” for town) Developed by geographer T.G. McGee, the model shows similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of Southeast Asia. The cities were old colonial port cities that were analyzed on how they were effected by and connected to surrounding districts. It would be used to symbolize specific areas that would be an investment for companies that contribute to urbanization.

  35. Friedrich Ratzel • Bio: Friedrich Ratzel • August 30, 1844-August 9, 1904 • a German geographer and ethnographer • notable for first using the term Lebensraum ("living space") • Premise: Organic Theory of Nations- nations act like living organism- must grow and will eventually decline • Claimed that geography was the study of the influences of the natural environment on people

  36. Continued… • Function: used to make sense of why nations rise and fall. Explains why nations evolve and change. • Effectiveness: gives explanation as to why nations grow and develop. • Gained a negative reputation when Hitler and the Nazis embraced the policy • Theory still true today • Gives valid explanation for why nations are the way they are today

  37. E.G. Ravensten • Established the Theory of Human Migration in the 1880’s • Laws: 1) Most People Migrate for economic reasons. 2) Most long distance migrants are male. 3) Long Distance migrants head for major cities in other countries. • Considers the distance and different types of migrants, where women are more likely to migrate in their home country, as compared to males.

  38. W.W. Roslow: Modernization Theory • Roslow was born in New York and attended Yale at the age of 15 one a full ride, he graduated in four years with a Phd completed in 1940. He was a Rhodes scholar and studied at Balliol College in Oxford, England. • During WWII he served in the Office of strategic services, in 1960 he joined JFK’s campaign and this is where he got into economical models and eventually came up with the Modernization theory. • The Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. • 5 stages of economical growth, Traditional society, Pre-conditions to take-off ,take-off, Maturity, and Mass consumption, these are a very important part of Roslows theory of Modernization. • He used these factors to figure out how modernized a country is or will be.

  39. Weaknesses in the Model • The theories of Roslow have been outdated and proved wrong by the “Asian Tigers” (Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand) • The Theories have become obsolete due to criticism from many other theorists. • Competed with the Dependence theory.

  40. Carl Sauer • Bio: Carl Sauer was born on December 24, 1889 in Warrenton, Missouri and died in 1975. He studied at the university of Northwestern in Evanston, Illinois. There he studied geography and developed an interest in the past. He didn’t agree with environmental determinism. • Premise: Cultural Landscape- Human activity superimposes itself on the physical landscape and that each cultural group leaves imprints. Sauer's opinions on environmental determinism changed and he became convinced that humans control nature and develop their cultures out of that control, not the other way around. We cut down the forest to adapt to our needs.

  41. Carl Sauer Function: it was developed in 1925 and it is used by developing things that make a region unique and suitable for the culture living there. For example, dams and burning down forests. Effectiveness: gives a valid explanation that humans shape the region they live in agriculture, domestication of pants, animals have a impact on the physical environment it is useful today because people use their ideas to develop things that will help them survive

  42. Gideon Sjoberg • Wrote studies on preindustrial cities in the past and present • His studies included patterns such as the nature of the education, the economy, and communication patterns in these preindustrial cities • Sjoberg was Swedish and that is literally all that Google wanted to tell me about this guy

  43. John Snow: (medical geography) • Snow later used a dot map, very successfully to illustrate the cluster of cholera cases around the pump. He also used statistics to illustrate the connection between the quality of the water source and cholera cases. He showed that the Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company was collecting water from sewage-polluted sections of the Thames River and delivering the water to homes, leading to an increased incidence of cholera. Snow's study was a major event in the history of public health and geography. • After Snow’s use of the dot map to show the cluster of cholera cases he became part of the Temperance movement and lived for about 10 years as a vegetarian and a teetotaler, which is a choice not to drink any alcoholic beverages. • In 2001 the John snow college founded on the University of DurnhamQueen’s campus there was a statue in his honor called the Stockton-on-Tees.

  44. Nicholas Spykman Rimland Theory- Eurasian Rim not the Heartland was the key to Global Power. Whoever controls the Rimland rules Eurasia, which in turn controls the destinies of the world “Geography of the Place” Heartland- Eastern Europe, Russia Rimland- Western Europe, Middle East and Asia

  45. Nicholas Spykman’sRimland Theory • It was a 1942 theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia (the “rimland”) would provide the base for world conquest which countered Mackinder’s Heartland theory. • His theory was invalid and unrelatable to any other time period. Example - His theory was influential mainly during the Cold War. The Soviet Union desired to control the rimland around them. If accomplished, the Soviet Union would control the heartland, rimland, and the World Island (continent).

  46. Johann Heinrich von Thünen 1783-1850 • Established the Thünen rings. • Each ring based on agricultural distribution, where agricultural activities around a city depend on bulk and perishability of products. • Rings: 1) City Center (Black) 2) Market gardening (White) 3)Forest (Green) 4) Grains (Yellow) 5) Ranching [Livestock(Red)]. • Dark Green is where farming is not profitable.

  47. Alfred Weber 1868-1958 • Location of Industry (Least Cost Theory) • Agglomeration: People and activities concentrate in a location where they can share facilities and services • Transportation of raw materials (fishing and forestry) and final product is a minimal cost • Leans on work development and explains and predicts the location at a macro scale • Finds the most mutual place and makes that where the two or three places would meet • The location of the junction matters on how much the market will grow

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