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The Bonds of Empire

The Bonds of Empire

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The Bonds of Empire

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  1. The Bonds of Empire US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010

  2. Focus Questions • How did the Glorious Revolution shape relations between England and its North American colonies? • What factors contributed most significantly to the growth and prosperity of the British mainland colonies? • What factors explain the relative strengths of the British, French, and Spanish empires in North America? • What were the most significant results of the Enlightenment and Great Awakening in the British colonies?

  3. Rebellion and War, 1669-1713 p. 89

  4. Royal Centralization, 1660-1688 • Kings centralized power • Little use for representative government • Direct political control over colonies • Dominion of New England • Consolidated NE colonies into one unit • Tensions arise between colonies and Britain • Massachusetts hates Dominion

  5. The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689 • Protestants Mary (James’ daughter) and husband William of Orange invade Britain • Catholic James overthrown, flees to France • English Bill of Rights-1689 • “limited monarchy” • Dominion abolished • King William III tries to control New England • Tolerance of other Protestants required • Demise of the New England Way

  6. A Generation of War, 1689-1713 • King William’s War • Extension of European War to North America • Invasion of New France • Queen Anne’s War • England and France (War of the Spanish Succession) • Spanish invade Carolina • Acadia captured by British, renamed Nova Scotia

  7. Colonial Economies and Societies, 1660-1750

  8. Mercantilist Empires in America • Mercantilism • Nation’s power measured in wealth, esp. gold • Maximize exports (exchange for gold) • Not rely on other nations • Colonies would provide raw materials • Home country manufactures goods, colonist markets • War , if necessary, to gain raw materials, expand markets, block rivals • Navigation Acts • Certain commodities must go through England • Molasses Act-taxed foreign molasses • Protective tariffs on foreign goods • Encouraged colonies to diversify economies

  9. Population Growth and Diversity • England held demographic edge • 250,000 in English colonies by 1700 • 15,000 French and 4,500 Spanish • 1,170,000 in English colonies by 1750 • 60,000 French and 19,000 Spanish • English had better farmland, weather, healthier economies • English accepted most Protestant groups, even non-English • Scots-Irish and Germans • Anti-Catholic sentiment remained high • Small Jewish communities developed

  10. Fig. 4-1, p. 96

  11. Rural White Men and Women • Farmers typically had just enough land for themselves • Adult children would rent other land • Farms were typically mortgaged • Not paid off until reaching late fifties • Wives and daughters did household and close-in work on farm • Married women, with few exceptions, did not own property • Widows owned 8-10% of all property

  12. p. 99

  13. Colonial Farmers and the Environment • Rapid expansion east of Appalachians • Trees had to be cleared • Game drove away • Didn’t rotate crops • Used manure, except with tobacco

  14. Map 4-1, p. 97

  15. The Urban Paradox • Cities key to prosperity • Only 4% of population by 1740 • Few significant cities: Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charleston • Poverty rose in cities • Women especially affected • Changing labor patterns • Move from apprentices and journeymen tradesmen to shorter term labor • Wealth concentrated in small number of families

  16. p. 99

  17. p. 101

  18. Slavery • Owners spent just enough to keep slaves alive • 40% of what was spent to maintain indentured servants • Some food provided, forage or raise other food • Creoles, American-born slaves • Some slaves learned trades or worked in houses • Task system allowed some slaves time to grow own crops and earn some money • Gang system-work from dawn to dusk, sometimes longer • Slaves could be rented out • Black majority in South Carolina • Restrictions on slaves

  19. African Origins ofSlaves Shipped by British 1692–1807

  20. Map 4-2, p. 98

  21. p. 98

  22. p. 102

  23. Stono Rebellion (1739) • Slave uprising in SC • Suppressed brutally • Strict slave codes enacted

  24. The Rise of Colonial Elites • Small number became very wealthy • Greater gentry • 2% of population • Owned 15% of all property • Lesser Gentry • Next 8% of population • Owned 25% of property • Imitated refinements of upper class in Europe • Some would go on grand tour to Europe

  25. 04CO, p. 86

  26. p. 105

  27. Competing for a Continent, 1713-1750 • French seek to strengthen hold in Mississippi Valley • New Orleans established in 1718 • Difficult life for all in Louisiana • France tries to counter British in Ohio Valley • French post of Detroit established • English would offer better prices for goods • French, in general, treated Indians better, but could be brutal • French traders went into Rocky Mountains • Bought buffalo hides and Indian slaves • Great Plains and Great Basin Indians adopt horse and gun

  28. p. 106

  29. Map 4-3, p. 110

  30. Native Americans and British Expansion • Depopulation and dislocation of natives • Conflict came early to Carolina • Tuscarora War (1711-1713) • Yamasee War (1715-1716) • Covenant Chain • Iroquois help English conquer other Indians • Iroquois become most powerful Indian group

  31. British Expansion in the South: Georgia • Gen. James Oglethorpe • Unique experiment • Military and philanthropic motives • Counter Spanish presence in Florida • Limited land holding • Excluded Africans initially • Excluded Catholics • Prohibited rum • Strictly regulated trade with natives • Poor tradesmen and artisans • England and Scotland • Religious refugees • Germany and Switzerland • Lowest percentage of English

  32. p. 108

  33. Congregation Mickve Israel Founded 1733 Statue of James Oglethorpe Savannah, Georgia

  34. Spain’s Borderlands • Spain controlled much of SE and SW by 1750 • Spread thin, sparsely populated • Depended on support of Natives Americans

  35. p. 109

  36. p. 110

  37. The Return of War, 1739-1748 • King George’s War (1740-1748) • War between Britain and Spain • War of the Austrian Succession in Europe • New Englanders attack New France

  38. p. 111

  39. Colonial Politics • Colonial assemblies a major force • Lower house elected by people • Upper house appointed by governor • Trial of Peter Zenger • Encouraged broad political participation and discussion

  40. p. 112

  41. The Enlightenment • Well educated population • Enlightenment combined human reason with skepticism • Benjamin Franklin • Embodied Enlightenment in America • Science and public benefit

  42. p. 114

  43. The Great Awakening • Surge of Protestant revivalism, beginning in 1739 • Jonathan Edwards • Congregationalist minister • “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” • George Whitefield • Revival tour • Unprecedented split in Protestantism • New Lights vs. Old Lights • New colleges formed • Added to prominence of women in religion

  44. p. 87

  45. p. 117

  46. p. 118

  47. The Bonds of Empire US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010