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Verbal Ability

Verbal Ability

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Verbal Ability

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  1. Verbal Ability • Analogies 1

  2. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • You will have to address eight analogies per each verbal section (16 total for the entire test). • First, memorize the directions for this portion of the test. 2

  3. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • Second, find the “bridge” between the stem words before even looking at the answer choices. • Come up with a simple sentence to relate the two words. • If necessary, you can start with the second word first. • Start with a simple, general bridge sentence, but if more than one answer choice fits, go back and make your sentence more specific. 3

  4. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • Begin this section by first determining the relationship between the original pair of words. • There will always be a direct and necessary relationship between the words in the stem pair. • A weak bridge expresses a relationship that isn’t necessary or direct. • Some key words indicating a weak bridge: Usually, can, might, seldom, may or may not, some, or sometimes. • Use the phrase (by definition) to establish direct and necessary links. 4

  5. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • Some common types of analogies you should memorize: • Part and whole: sole:shoe. • Whole and part: hand:fingers. • Class and member: fish:salmon. • Type of: debate:argument. • Degree: cool:frigid. 5

  6. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • Some common types of analogies you should memorize: • Opposites: tall:short. • Worker and tool: photographer:camera. • Worker and workplace: teacher:classroom. • Cause and effect (result): poison:death. • Effect and cause: death:poison. 6

  7. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • Some common types of analogies you should memorize: • Action and that which performs it: fly:plane. • Purpose or object and action: scissors:cut. • Indication of: boo:disapproval. • Synonyms: canine:dog. • Study of: linguistics:language. 7

  8. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • Some common types of analogies you should memorize: • Characteristic of: dexterity:pianist. • Definition: hero:courage. • Lack of definition: coward:courage. 8

  9. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • There are other types beyond those above, but you have many of them covered here, and recognizing the relationship is crucial to helping you answer the question correctly. • Plug the answer choices into the bridge and maintain the same word order that you used with the stem pair. 9

  10. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • If you get stuck, eliminate all answer choices with weak bridges. • If two choices have the same bridge—eliminate them both. 10

  11. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • Avoid classic analogy traps. • The Both Are Trap: The words aren’t directly related to each other, but they are both related to a third word. • The Same Subject Trap: The words are in the same subject area as the stem words, but they don’t share the same bridge. 11

  12. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • Avoid classic analogy traps. • The Cliché Trap: The words sound natural together but don’t actually have a clear and logical relationship. • The Reverse Direction Trap: The bridge is strong but wrong and would be right if the order of the words was reversed. 12

  13. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • If you cannot build a good bridge for the words in the stem pair, eliminate all choices with weak bridges and then guess intelligently. • The best way to prepare for Analogies is to practice, practice, practice. • Create your own types of analogies to help you think analogously. 13

  14. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • The best way to prepare for Analogies is to practice, practice, practice. • Analogies should be reasonable and inevitable or valid and necessary. • Eliminate answer choices that seem to violate the rule above. 14

  15. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • The best way to prepare for Analogies is to practice, practice, practice. • Make up a sentence that reveals the connection between the two words. • Example: For APPLAUSE:APPROVAL your sentence might be: “Applause is an indication of approval.” • Make sure your sentence is as precise and specific as possible. • Imprecise: A MINISTER gives a SERMON. • Precise: One of the functions of a MINISTER is to teach through a SERMON. 15

  16. Analogies • The purpose of the Analogies section is to test your ability to recognize parallels and similarities between words and ideas. • The best way to prepare for Analogies is to practice, practice, practice. • Make sure you identify the parts of speech of the paired words because the correct answer will have parts of speech that match. • Most analogies involve nouns and adjectives. • Always be alert for words with multiple meanings. • Example: A school may mean “group.” • The answer must be in the same order as the capitalized words. • Example: COLLAGE:ARTIST and NOVEL:AUTHOR not COMPOSER:SONATA. 16