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Biology EOC Review Pack

Biology EOC Review Pack. The answers. 1) List the characteristics of life. E nergy H omeostasis O rganization R eproduction A daptation & Evolution G rowth & Development A djust to a stimulus. 2) Explain the difference between independent & dependent variables.

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Biology EOC Review Pack

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  1. Biology EOC Review Pack The answers

  2. 1) List the characteristics of life • Energy • Homeostasis • Organization • Reproduction • Adaptation & Evolution • Growth & Development • Adjust to a stimulus

  3. 2) Explain the difference between independent & dependent variables • Dependent depends on Independent • Independent - what is tested/changed • Dependent - effect; what you’re measuring • Ex. In Redi’s experiment, what is the independent variable? • Covering the jar • Dependent variable? • Presence of maggots

  4. 3) Explain the purpose of a control group • For comparison • To compare with experimental group data • Receives no treatment • Redi’s control group: • Uncovered jars

  5. 4) What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative data? Quantitative : quantity : numbers data presented in graphs Qualitative : words, descriptions

  6. 5) Summarize the steps in the scientific method. • 1. Problem • 2. Background (research other experiments) • 3. Hypothesis • 4. Experiment • 5. Observation (data) • 6. Conclusion (analyze data)

  7. 6) Fill in the chart: Carbohydrates

  8. 6) Fill in the chart: Lipids

  9. 6) Fill in the chart: Proteins

  10. 6) Fill in the chart: Nucleic Acids

  11. 7) Draw a line from the organic molecule to the test and fill in the test results.

  12. vacuole ribosomes mitochondria nucleus 8) Draw, Label, & Color an Animal Cell Plasma membrane/ cell membrane

  13. 8) Draw, Label, & Color Plant Cell Cell wall (cellulose) nucleus vacuole Plasma/cell membrane ribosomes chloroplast mitochondria

  14. 8) Organelle function & analogy chart

  15. 9) Which cells would have more mitochondria – fat cells or muscle cells? Why? • Muscle cells – they are more active; need more ATP; perform more active transport (needs ATP) Highly-folded membrane= increased surface area

  16. 10) Which cells would have more chloroplasts – stem, leaf, or root cells? Why? • Leaf cells – they are the main photosynthetic organs; designed & positioned to collect maximum sunlight (to make glucose)

  17. 11) Fill in the Venn diagram comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells in terms of size, chromosome structure, organelles, and types of organisms. Prokaryotic Eukaryotic *Much larger *Many chromosomes *Nucleus *Membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplast) *Plants, animals, protists, fungi *Very small *One chromosome *Plasmid *No nucleus *No membrane-bound organelles, *Bacteria Ribosomes Cytoplasm Cell membrane Flagella Cell wall?

  18. 12) From smallest to largest, fill in levels of cellular hierarchy:Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ Systems  Organism

  19. 13) How do cells communicate? 4 Ways: • 1) Direct contact: protein receptors • 2) Short-range signals: proteins • 3) Long-range signals: hormones • 4) Complex: chemical & electrical signals

  20. 14) Why do cells need to maintain homeostasis? • Cells need a stable environment to support enzyme activity 15) How do cells maintain homeostasis in: • pH – buffers decrease impact of change • temperature – bodies shiver, pant, sweat • blood glucose levels – insulin increases absorption of glucose after meals • water balance – water follows concentration gradient – seeks equilibrium, moves by osmosis from high to low concentration

  21. 16) Why is water important to cells? • It gains & loses heat very slowly • Dissolves & transports nutrients • Helps body eliminate wastes from cells • Lubricates joints & acts as shock absorber

  22. 17) Define: Active Transport, Passive Transport, Diffusion, Osmosis, Semi-permeable membrane • Active transport: Requires energy & transport protein. Moves materials against concentration gradient (lowhigh) • Passive transport:No energy; moves materials with concentration gradient (highlow) • Diffusion: Random particle movement; passive • Osmosis:Water movement; passive • Semi-permeable membrane: allows some materials to pass

  23. 18) Draw & Describe a situation in which water would move into a cell by osmosis. Water moving in Red blood cell in distilled water Water moves in  Cell swells

  24. 19) Draw & Describe a situation in which water would move out of a cell by osmosis. Water moving out 80% water 90% water Red blood cell in strong sugar/salt water Salt/sugar Sucks! the H2O out = cell shrinks

  25. 20) How is ATP made and used in the cell? • Cellular respiration produces ATP by breaking down glucose to release energy • Happens in the mitochondria • Used in • Active transport, mitosis, meiosis…

  26. 21) Draw & Label the cycle from ATP to ADP. ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate Releasing energy Storing energy ADP - Adenosine Diphosphate

  27. 22) What are enzymes? • Proteins that control the rate of chemical reactions in cells; end in –ase (ex. Lactase, sucrase, amylase) • They are Catalysts = reusable • 23) What is their importance in biological processes? • They start & speed up chemical reactions that otherwise would take too long & interrupt homeostasis • 24) Explain what is meant by “they are re-usable and specific.” • They are not used up in reactions, so they can be used again & again • They are substrate-specific (each enzyme’s active site has a specific shape that only fits a certain substrate=substance the enzyme breaks down or assembles

  28. 25) What affects enzyme activity? • pH – enzymes in stomach work best in acidic (1.5-2) pH • Temperature – enzymes in humans work best around 98.6 degrees F • In some chemosynthetic bacteria, around 700 degrees Celsius • Explain the term denature. • Enzyme’s active site becomes deformed so that it can no longer bind to its substrate

  29. Substrate broken Into products 27) Label the diagram: Substrate Active site Enzyme binding with substrate Enzyme ready To be used again Enzyme: B, C, D

  30. 28) What are the main differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? • A) Aerobic – uses oxygen (O2) • much more effective at making ATP • Happens in the mitochondria • B) Anaerobic – NO O2!! • Very ineffective • What is alcoholic fermentation? What are the products? What types of cells do this? • Anaerobic process, happens when plant or fungal cells have no O2 • produces CO2, alcohol, & a little ATP

  31. 30) What type of fermentation might be used in your own muscle cells when they do not get enough oxygen? What might this cause? • Lactic acid fermentation (anaerobic) • Causes muscle cramps 31) What type of fermentation does yeast use? What might it produce? • Alcoholic fermentation (anaerobic) • Produces alcohol, CO2, and a little ATP

  32. 32) Equation for Cellular Respiration: O2 + C6H12O6 CO2 + H2O ReactantsProducts oxygen carbon dioxide glucose water ATP 33) What is chemosynthesis? Where might it be used? converting chemical energy into glucose; places with no sunlight 34) Equation for Photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O  O2 + C6H12O6 ReactantsSunlightProducts carbon dioxide oxygen water glucose

  33. Photosynthesis Pulls CO2 out of atmosphere uses it as a reactant Decreases global warming Who does it? Plants, plant-like protists, algae Where: chloroplast Cellular respiration Releases CO2 into atmosphere CO2 is a product Who does it? ALL living things Plants, plant-like protists, fungi, animals, bacteria… Where: mitochondria 35) Describe the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the carbon cycle.

  34. H T A P P D D H C G P P D D • Describe the structure of DNA. Who discovered this structure? • Double helix, Double stranded • Watson & Crick 37) Draw & label a DNA strand 2 nucleotides long. H H

  35. 38) Name the nitrogenous bases in DNA and what each pairs with. • Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T) • Cytosine (C) pairs with Guanine (G) China Grove is where it’s AT 39) What type of bond is formed between the bases in DNA? Why is it important? Weak Hydrogen bonds Unzip easily for DNA replication & transcription

  36. 40) a. Describe the structure of RNA. • Single stranded; simple sugar : ribose; has U (Uracil) instead of T b. What is the role of mRNA? • Take message from DNA in nucleus to ribosome; it is single-stranded so it can leave through nuclear pore c. What is the role of tRNA? • Like a Truck bringing supplies (amino acids) to the factory (ribosome) so proteins can be assembled • What base is found in RNA that is not found in DNA? What does it correspond to? • Uracil = corresponds to Adenine • Uracil replaces Thymine

  37. 42) Why is DNA Replication considered semi-conservative? • Makes 2 new strands (half new & half original) 43) What are 3 main differences between DNA and RNA: • A. DNA: double-stranded; RNA:single-stranded • B. DNA sugar: deoxyribose; RNA sugar: ribose • C. DNA has T; RNA has U 44) When in the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? Where in the cell does it happen? • During Interphase (before mitosis or meiosis) • Happens in the nucleus

  38. 45) What is Transcription and where does it happen? • Double-stranded DNA -> single-stranded mRNA • Happens in the nucleus 46) What is Translation and where does it happen? • mRNA goes to ribosome; tRNA brings amino acids to ribosome; proteins are synthesized (made/assembled) 47) What is a codon? • 3 nitrogen bases = 1 amino acid

  39. alanine AA Delivery tRNA tRNA 48) Draw an animal cell and show the processes starting with DNA and finishing with protein synthesis. amino acid tRNA bringing amino acid to ribosome Translation protein ribosome Product: ala val tyr peptide bonds mRNA Transcription DNA nucleus

  40. 49) Use this original DNA strand to make a complementary DNA strand. Original: TAC CGA CCT GGG TAT ATG ACT Complementary: ATG GCT GGA CCC ATA TAC TGA 50) Use the original DNA above to make an mRNA strand: Original: TAC CGA CCT GGG TAT ATG ACT mRNA: AUG GCU GGA CCC AUA UAC UGA

  41. 51) Use the mRNA strand to make a polypeptide chain. p.292 mRNA: AUG GCU GGA CCC AUA UAC UGA Polypeptide Chain: Met Ala Gly Pro Ile Tyr Stop

  42. 52) Define cancer. Uncontrolled cell division caused by gene mutation What causes it? Over- or underproduction, or production of proteins at the wrong times Give examples of 3 types of cancer & explain their known causes. • Skin cancer – UV rays from sun (hole in ozone layer) • Mouth/throat cancer – chewing/dipping/smoking tobacco • Breast cancer – genetic predisposition (altered BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes)

  43. 53) Compare & contrast mitosis & meiosis using a Venn diagram. Mitosis Meiosis =reduction division *sexual *asexual *Provides genetic variation from -crossing over -independent assortment *Produces identical daughter cells *cell division *somatic (body) cells *Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase *1 division *Diploid=2n *gametes (sex cells) Males:sperm Females:ovules *Necessary to complete cycle of life *cloning *regeneration *2 divisions *copy *haploid=n *budding *so a species can survive in changing environment *so organism can grow

  44. 54) Put the stages of mitosis in order. Label what is happening in each stage. 3rd: chromosomes separate at centromeres, begin to move to poles 2nd: chromosomes line up at equator 4th: chromosomes move toward poles; cell begins to pinch apart 1st: nuclear envelope dissolves; centrioles appear; chromatin coils up = chromosomes Remember: puppy PMAT!

  45. 55) Define: a. Diploid: 2n; has 2 sets of chromosomes b. Haploid: n; has 1 set of chromosomes 56)a. What is crossing over? Exchange of genetic material in meiosis b. When does crossing over occur? During Prophase I of meiosis c. What’s the benefit of crossing over? Genetic variation=survival of the species

  46. 57) Define Independent Assortment. Alleles for different traits are inherited separately – not linked together How does it increase variation? New genetic combinations This diagram shows a diploid cell with two pairs of homologous chromosomes. Due to independent assortment, what is the possible genetic makeup of gametes produced? ST, St, sT, st (find all possible combinations of letters) A B a b

  47. 58) What is a gene mutation? Any change in DNA Define and give an example of each (with before and after mutation). Before After Point mutation: substituting one N base for another GGA TCG GGG TCG Frameshift mutation: inserting or deleting one N base; changes entire strand from that point GGA TCG GGA TAC G How do mutations increase variation? Allows for genetic diversity=raw material for natural selection

  48. 59) What is segregation of alleles? Alleles separate during gamete formation & randomly unite during fertilization How does it increase variation? Get more different combinations of alleles 60) How can reproductive variations benefit a species? More variations = More chances species will survive during in a changing env.

  49. 61) Define nondisjunction. Failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis What does it cause? Trisomy 21 = 3 chromosomes at pair 21 (down syndrome) 62) Define fertilization. Sperm & egg fuse together.

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