the united states in world war ii n.
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  2. United States: 1941 – Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor 1942 – Japanese Americans are sent to relocation centers 1945 – US Marines take Iwo Jima World: 1941 – Hitler invades the Soviet Union 1942- Nazi’s develop the “final solution” for exterminating Jews 1945 – Japan surrenders after atomic bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima Timeline: What’s Happening?

  3. Section One: Mobilizing for Defense: Main Idea: Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States mobilized for war. Why it Matters Now: Military industries in the United States today are a major part of the American economy. Key Terms: George Marshall Women’s Auxiliary Army Corp (WAAC) A. Philip Randolph Manhattan Project Key Terms: Office of Price Administration (OPA) War Production Board (WPB) Rationing

  4. Section 1: Objectives: • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Explain how the United States expanded its armed forces in World War II. • 2. Describe the wartime mobilization of industry, labor, scientists, and the media. • 3. Trace the efforts of the US government to control the economy and deal with alleged subversion.

  5. SECTION 1: MOBILIZING FOR DEFENSE • After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, they thought America would avoid further conflict with them • The Japan Times newspaper said America was “trembling in their shoes” • But if America was trembling, it was with rage, not fear • “Remember Pearl Harbor” was the rallying cry as America entered WWII

  6. AMERICANS RUSH TO ENLIST • After Pearl Harbor five million Americans enlisted to fight in the war • The Selective Service expanded the draft and eventually provided an additional 10 million soldiers

  7. Why do you think that Japan felt that America wouldn’t go to war with them, even after the Pearl Harbor attack? • America’s army was no match for Japan • Japan was involved with many other large communist countries • America was in a period of isolationism • America did not have the financial resources for war

  8. The United Service did not use the draft to enlist soldiers during WWII. • True • False

  9. If a world war started today, do you think that 5 million Americans would volunteer to fight? • Yes • No • Maybe

  10. WOMEN JOIN THE FIGHT • Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall pushed for the formation of the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) • Under this program women worked in non-combat roles such as nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, and pilots

  11. George Marshall argued for the creation of the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps. This would allow women to serve in • Combat • Noncombat positions • Home front workplaces • None of the above

  12. ALL AMERICANS FOUGHT Despite discrimination at home, minority populations contributed to the war effort • 1,000,000 African Americans served in the military • 300,000 Mexican-Americans • 33,000 Japanese Americans • 25,000 Native Americans • 13,000 Chinese Americans These “Golden 13” Great Lakes officers scored the highest marks ever on the Officers exam in 1944

  13. Minorities served in the U.S. military and played a prominent role. • True • False

  14. A PRODUCTION MIRACLE • Americans converted their auto industry into a war industry • The nation’s automobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars • Many other industries also converted to war-related supplies

  15. LABOR’S CONTRIBUTION • By 1944, nearly 18 million workers were laboring in war industries (3x the # in 1941) • More than 6 million of these were women and nearly 2 million were minority

  16. This group was responsible for monitoring production of wartime goods. • Office of Scientific Research • Manhattan Project • War Production Board • Office of Price Administration

  17. MOBILIZATION OF SCIENTISTS • In 1941, FDR created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) to bring scientists into the war effort • Focus was on radar and sonar to locate submarines • Also the scientists worked on penicillin and pesticides like DDT

  18. MANHATTAN PROJECT • The most important achievement of the OSRD was the secret development of the atomic bomb • Einstein wrote to FDR warning him that the Germans were attempting to develop such a weapon • The code used to describe American efforts to build the bomb was the “Manhattan Project”

  19. What are your thoughts on Nuclear Warfare? • I feel that it may be necessary in war • I don’t like it, but could see why it was used • Not sure • It should never be used in warfare

  20. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TAKES CONTROL OF INFLATION • With prices of goods threatening to rise out of control, FDR responded by creating the Office of Price Administration (OPA) • The OPA froze prices on most goods and encouraged the purchase of war bonds to fight inflation

  21. WAR PRODUCTION BOARD • To ensure the troops had ample resources, FDR created the WPB • The WPB decided which companies would convert to wartime production and how to best allocate raw materials to those industries

  22. Why was the War Production Board important? • To ensure that troops had jobs when they came back from war • To allow women in the workforce • To allocate which companies need to create materials for the war and which companies need to create materials for domestic use • To allow the government to raise money for the war

  23. COLLECTION DRIVES • The WPB also organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags and cooking fat for recycling • Additionally, the OPA set up a system of rationing • Households had set allocations of scarce goods – gas, meat, shoes, sugar, coffee

  24. Propaganda was used heavily by the entertainment industry. • True • False

  25. WWII Poster encouraging conservation

  26. Section Two: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Summarize the Allies’ plan for winning the war • 2. Identify events in the war in Europe • 3. Describe the liberation of Europe

  27. Section Two: The War for Europe and North Africa Main Idea: Allied forces, led by the United States and Great Britain, battle Axis powers for control of Europe and North Africa. Why it Matters Now: During World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today. Key Terms: Dwight D. Eisenhower D-Day Omar Bradley Key Terms: George Patton Battle of the Bulge V-E Day Harry S. Truman

  28. SECTION 2: THE WAR FOR EUROPE AND NORTH AFRICA • Days after Pearl Harbor, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived at the White House and spent three weeks working out war plans with FDR • They decided to focus on defeating Hitler first and then turn their attention to Japan

  29. THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC • After America’s entry into the war, Hitler was determined to prevent foods and war supplies from reaching Britain and the USSR from America’s east coast • He ordered submarine raids on U.S. ships on the Atlantic • During the first four months of 1942 Germany sank 87 U.S. ships The power of the German submarines was great, and in two months' time almost two million tons of Allied ships were resting on the ocean floor. Efforts were soon made to restrict German subs' activities.

  30. ALLIES CONTROL U-BOATS • In the first seven months of 1942, German U-boats sank 681 Allied ships in the Atlantic • Something had to be done or the war at sea would be lost • First, Allies used convoys of ships & airplanes to transport supplies • Destroyers used sonar to track U-boats • Airplanes were used to track the U-boats ocean surfaces • With this improved tracking, Allies inflicted huge losses on German U-boats U-426 sinks after attack from the air, January 1944. Almost two-thirds of all U-boat sailors died during the Battle of the Atlantic.

  31. Why were convoys an appropriate way to deter German U-boats from attacking? • The convoys were armed with explosives that might also destroy the German ships • The German U-boats couldn’t get around the convoy to attack • The convoy system allowed the Allied ships to pass through because they were such a formidable opponent and the German U-boats wouldn’t have a chance • German officials didn’t want to give up the strategic location of their U-boats

  32. THE EASTERN FRONT & MEDITERRANEAN • Hitler wanted to wipe out Stalingrad – a major industrial center • In the summer of 1942, the Germans took the offensive in the southern Soviet Union • By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea • The first great turning point was the Battle of Stalingrad Battle of Stalingrad was a huge Allied victory

  33. BATTLE OF STALINGRAD • For weeks the Germans pressed in on Stalingrad • Then winter set in and the Germans were wearing summer uniforms • The Germans surrendered in January of 1943 • The Soviets lost more than 1 million men in the battle (more than twice the number of deaths the U.S. suffered in all the war) Wounded in the Battle of Stalingrad

  34. Why was the Battle of Stalingrad so important? • Stalin lost so many troops • Hitler’s troops were forced back for the first time • The US helped to defeat the Soviets • Stalingrad was a key military outpost 25

  35. THE NORTH AFRICAN FRONT • “Operation Torch” – an invasion of Axis -controlled North Africa --was launched by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1942 • Allied troops landed in Casablanca, Oran and the Algiers in Algeria • They sped eastward chasing the Afrika Korps led by German General Edwin Rommel American tanks roll in the deserts of Africa and defeat German and Axis forces

  36. Allied troops landed in Casa-blanca, Oran and the Algiers

  37. CASABLANCA MEETING • FDR and Churchill met in Casablanca and decided their next moves • 1) Plan amphibious invasions of France and Italy • 2) Only unconditional surrender would be accepted FDR and Churchill in Casablanca

  38. ITALIAN CAMPAIGN – ANOTHER ALLIED VICTORY • The Italian Campaign got off to a good start as the Allies easily took Sicily • At that point King Emmanuel III stripped Mussolini of his power and had him arrested • However, Hitler’s forces continued to resist the Allies in Italy • Heated battles ensued and it wasn’t until 1945 that Italy was secured by the Allies

  39. TUSKEGEE AIRMEN • Among the brave men who fought in Italy were pilots of the all-black 99th squadron – the Tuskegee Airmen • The pilots made numerous effective strikes against Germany and won two distinguished Unit Citations

  40. On May 31, 1943, the 99th Squadron, the first group of African-American pilots trained at the Tuskegee Institute, arrived in North Africa

  41. ALLIES LIBERATE EUROPE Allies sent fake coded messages indicating they would attack here • Even as the Allies were battling for Italy, they began plans on a dramatic invasion of France • It was known as “Operation Overlord” and the commander was American General Dwight D. Eisenhower • Also called “D-Day,” the operation involved 3 million U.S. & British troops and was set for June 6, 1944

  42. D-DAY JUNE 6, 1944 • D-Day was the largest land-sea-air operation in military history • Despite air support, German retaliation was brutal – especially at Omaha Beach • Within a month, the Allies had landed 1 million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies and 170,000 vehicles D-Day was an amphibious landing – soldiers going from sea to land