Greek I Future Active/Middle Indicative (Chapter 19)
Exegetical Insight – The Imperatival Use of the Future Tense • Both English and Greek use the future tense to predict or describe an action that will take place in future. • But Greek also uses the future tense to form commands – particularly when the NT is quoting the OT. • o` de. e;fh auvtw/|( VAgaph,seij ku,rion to.n qeo,n sou evn o[lh| th/| kardi,a| sou kai. evn o[lh| th/| yuch/| sou kai. evn o[lh| th/| dianoi,a| sou\ Matt 22:37. • to. ga.r Ouv moiceu,seij( Ouv foneu,seij( Ouv kle,yeij( Ouvk evpiqumh,seij( kai. ei; tij e`te,ra evntolh,( evn tw/| lo,gw| tou,tw| avnakefalaiou/tai Îevn tw/|Ð VAgaph,seij to.n plhsi,on sou w`j seauto,n Rom 13:9.
Overview of this Lesson • In this lesson we will learn that: • the future tense indicates an action occurring in the future; • the future is formed by adding a sigma to the end of the future tense stem (lu,sw); • contract verbs lengthen their contract vowel before the sigma (avgaph,sw); • using the square of stops is helpful in identifying the future tense.
English • In English, the future tense describes an action that will take place in future time. • The future tense is formed by adding the helping verb “will”: • I will ace the vocab quiz next week. • I will definitely study Greek again in the spring.
Greek • As in English, the future tense in Greek expresses an action that takes place in future time. • The time reference is from the point of view of the writer, not the reader. • The aspect of the future tense is one of summary.
Greek: Future Active Indicative • Notice the tense formative, connecting vowel, and personal ending. • Look up the verb lu,w in the lexicon in the back of your book (p. 429). • Notice the different forms that are listed; the future will be the one at the beginning of the list.
Characteristics of Future Active Indicative • Translation: Add “will” to the verb; aspect will generally be undefined rather than continuous. • Contract Verbs: since the contract vowel does not come into contact with the connecting vowel, it lengthens rather than contracts.
For Next Week • Vocab quiz from chapter 19. • Workbook Exercise #19. (The final exam will be through Exercise 19). • Come to class next week with questions about anything that we have covered so far. • Spring semester will begin on Jan 30. Read chapter 20 on Verbal Roots, and Other Forms of the Future, pp. 165-179.