College Sports By Naomi Shimabuku & Becky Wong
History • The term intercollegiate athletics is defined as athletic contests between colleges • College presidents and deans thought manual labor in the form of farming or clearing boulders from college lands would suffice as physical activity for the students. • Collegiate student bodies increasingly devised their own elaborate (and often brutal) intramural contests known as "class rushes.“ • "rushes“: some variation of football, which provided a pretext for a ritualistic and violent hazing of the incoming freshman by the sophomore class.
History • intramural sports persisted within the campus eventually sanctioned and refereed events in which a team representing one institution competed against its counterpart from another. • administrators were not eager to embrace such contests • they viewed it as inappropriate distractions from serious scholarly work. • The president of Cornell sent a telegram to officials at the University of Michigan in 1873 when he learned that student teams from the two institutions were planning to meet in Cleveland for a football game: "I will not permit thirty men to travel four hundred miles merely to agitate a bag of wind."
History • With or without administrative blessings, college students formed athletic associations • Included mechanisms for raising money, charging fees, sponsoring events, and selling tickets. • By the 1890s alumni groups joined with the student organizations to create formidable programs over which the college presidents and faculty had relatively little control.
Timeline • 1891 • Springfield College in western Massachusetts, originally known as the International YMCA Training School, was where James Naismith invented basketball. • Amherst College initiated varsity baseball and incorporated calisthenics and physical fitness into the collegiate curriculum. • 1852 • First intercollegiate crew regatta (Harvard vs. Yale) • 1859 • First intercollegiate baseball game (Williams vs. Amherst) • 1879 • First official intercollegiate baseball league was formed. • 1872 • First intercollegiate football association (Harvard-Yale-Princeton) • The 1899 University of Kansas basketball team, with Dr. James Naismith (inventor of basketball)
Timeline • 1875 • First intercollegiate track and field association (Intercollegiate Association of Amateur Athletics of America, or IC4A) • 1883 • First intercollegiate tennis match • 1895 • First intercollegiate ice hockey game (Harvard vs. Brown) • 1899 • First intercollegiate gymnastics competition • 1900 popularity of collegiate sports was adopted in even all-girls schools. • Wellesley College acquired a distinctively female approach to such sports as crew, basketball, and physical fitness.
Title IX • Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 outlawed sex discrimination in higher education, which in practice meant that schools had to provide equal facilities and coaching staffs for women athletes and, more controversially, that they had to strive for a ratio of female to male athletes roughly equal to the ratio of women to men in the student body as a whole.
Women • The Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW), formed in 1971, first successful governing body for women's college sports. • It tended to approach athletics with a less competitive attitude than the NCAA. • AIAW invited all teams, not just winners, to participate in national championships. • 1980, the NCAA decided to offer its own women's championships, and the AIAW shut down two years later. • Under the leadership of the NCAA, women's college sports steadily if slowly gained main stream acceptance
The Evolution of Women’s College Sports • 1971: The Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) is formed with 280 member schools. AIAW holds first national tournaments in the 1971-72 season. • 1972: Congress passes Title IX, which prohibits gender discrimination by any school that receives federal funds. • 1973: On the advice of legal counsel, the NCAA rescinds its rule prohibiting female student-athletes from competing for NCAA championships. Dacia Schileru, a diver from Wayne State (Mich.), becomes the first woman to compete in an NCAA championship when she enters the College Division meet. • April 1980: The NCAA has its first co-ed championship — in rifle. Tennessee Tech wins the team title. • Nov. 21-22, 1981: The first NCAA championships for women are held. The College of New Jersey has the first undefeated season in NCAA women's sports, going 20-0 en route to the Division III field hockey title. • 1989: The Division I women's basketball tournament field expands to 48 teams. • March 1993: The Women's Final Four, at the Omni in Atlanta, is an advance sellout for only the second time. It is also the first of nine consecutive sellouts of the Women's Final Four. • 1994: The Division I women's basketball tournament field expands to 64 teams. • 1995: For the first time in NCAA women's basketball history, two schools go undefeated in the same season — Connecticut in Division I and North Dakota State in Division II. • 1996: The national women's golf tournament is split into Division I and Divisions II/III. • 1999: The Division I women's volleyball tournament field expands to 64 teams. • March 23 and 25, 2001: Women's ice hockey premieres as a national collegiate championship, known as the Women's Frozen Four. Minnesota-Duluth defeats St. Lawrence 4-2 in Minneapolis for the title. • July 2001: The NCAA and ESPN agree on a new deal for the Division I women's basketball tournament worth at least $160 million over 11 years beginning in 2003. The deal guarantees ESPN will expand its coverage of the women's tournament to all 63 games and grants ESPN television rights to 20 other NCAA championships. • August 2001: The Division I women's soccer tournament field expands to 64 teams.
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) • It was the flying wedge, football's major offense in 1905, that spurred the formation of the NCAA. • December 28, 1905 the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS) was founded by 62 members. • The IAAUS officially was constituted March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910.
NCAA • 1951: Walter Byers named executive director. • 1952: A national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri • 1973: Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions - I, II and III • 1980: NCAA began administering women's athletics programs when Divisions II and III established 10 championships for 1981-82. • August 1, 1997: NCAA implemented a change in its governance structure that provides greater autonomy for each membership division and more control by the presidents of member colleges and universities.
Members of NCAA • 1905: • 62 active members • 2010: • 331 active Division I members • 291 active Division II members • 429 active Division III members
NCAA Eligibility • Division l • Academic eligibility requirements • Graduate high school • Complete 16 core courses • Achieve core GPA and test score on sliding scale
NCAA Eligibility • Division ll (2009-July 31, 2013) • Academic eligibility requirements • Graduate high school • Complete 14 core courses • As of August 1, 2013 and on complete 16 core courses • 2.0 GPA or better in core courses • Combined SAT score of 820 or ACT sum score of 68
NCAA Eligibility • Division lll • Does not use eligibility center • Homeschooled students must meet same requirements in order to play Div. l and ll
Your Amateurism and You • Following precollegiate enrollment activities will be reviewed • Contracts with professional team • Salary for participating in athletics • Prize money • Play with professionals • Try out practice or competition with profesional team • Benefits from agent of prospective agent • Agreement to be represented by an agent • Delayed initial full time collegiate enrollment to participate in organized sports competition
Current NCAA Sports • Fall • Cross Country • Field Hockey • Football • Men's Soccer • Women's Soccer • Women's Volleyball • Men's Water Polo
Current NCAA Sports • Winter • Men's Basketball • Women's Basketball • Bowling • Fencing • Men's Gymnastics • Women's Gymnastics • Men's Ice Hockey • Women's Ice Hockey • Rifle • Skiing • Men's Swimming/Diving • Women's Swimming/Diving • Track and Field (Indoor) • Wrestling
Current NCAA Sports • Spring • Baseball • Men's Golf • Women's Golf • Men's Lacrosse • Women's Lacrosse • Rowing • Softball • Men's Tennis • Women's Tennis • Track and Field (Outdoor) • Men's Volleyball • Women's Water Polo
Scholarships • NCAA does not provide scholarships for division lll schools. • Athletic scholarships in division l and ll given initially for up to 1 year • May be renewed annually for a maximum of 5 years within a 6 year period of continuous college attendance • Ranges from full ride to small scholarships to provide payment for books • Must report all scholarships to financial aid office • The NCAA considered limiting men’s basketball teams to four new scholarships per year, regardless of the players who have left the program the previous year.
Recruiting Regulations • 2000 Amateur Recruiting • NCAA consider ending the long-standing tradition of evaluating, and eventually recuiting, high school players at elite AAU amaeur high school camps and tournaments sponsored by corporations such as And 1 and Nike. • Coaches will allow be allowed to recruit during the school year.
ISSUE: Paying College Athletes? • College athletes help to generate a large amount of revenue for their school • Not personally rewarded for their contribution. Instead money is distributed among administrators, coaches, media outlets, and other parties • A college athlete can receive up to $120,000 in total scholarships, so essentially they already are being paid for their participation • Should athletes get paid? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cUIr1my-wJA
Are some college athletes viewed and treated like professional athletes? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3W8CZi6NYJs
ISSUE • Since the 1980s, critics have been claiming that college athletics in its present form is inconsistent with the values of higher education. • Athletic programs siphon off millions of dollars that should go to a wider range of student activities, • gambling and lucrative licensing and television contracts taint the educational missions of nonprofit and public institutions • student athletes often fail to meet academic standards and are unable to get a proper education because their sports require all their time and effort. • On the other side, defenders respond that sports teaches students skills they cannot learn in a classroom and that it helps create a sense of community pride on campus.
1939 the president of the University of Chicago abolished its very successful football program on the grounds that the point of education was to make the curriculum "rational and intelligible," not to provide extracurricular escapes from it. • 1951, when seven leading college basketball teams, including the City College of New York national champions, were implicated in a point-shaving scandal (gamblers paid them not to cover the spread). • the NCAA instituted Proposition 48, later Proposition 16, which established minimum academic requirements for incoming student athletes.
athletes had a distinct admissions advantage over other applicants, did worse than nonathletes in the classroom, and tended to create their own athlete culture that had little to do with the rest of campus life. • almost all schools lost money on sports, and athletic success did not translate into alumni giving.
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) • March 10, 1940 • First general session of organized convention of the national association of intercollegiate basketball (NAIB) • Emil S. Liston, Dr. James Naismith, Frank Cramer, and a group of Kansas City business leaders wanted to provide Kansas City-area fans with exciting amateur competition • provided support for small colleges and universities to determine a national basketball champion.
National Association of Intercollegiate Basketball (NAIB) • 1948 • NAIB affirmed its commitment to equality by becoming the first national organization to offer intercollegiate postseason opportunities to black student-athletes. • Unprecedented action was taken in 1953 when historically black institutions were voted into membership • 1952 • As a result of the expressed desires appropriate steps were taken by which the NAIB was transformed into the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA),
NAIA Sports • Fall • Cross Country (M, W) • Football • Soccer (M, W) • Volleyball
Winter • Basketball (M, W, Div. l and ll) • Swimming, Diving (M, W) • Indoor track and field (M, W) • Wrestling
Spring • Baseball • Golf (M, W) • Softball • Tennis (M, W) • Outdoor track & field (M, W)
Recruitment • Both freshmen and transfers, few restrictions on contact between student-athlete and coach. More communication allowed • Once started college by enrolling and/or attending classes representatives from an NAIA institution cannot initiative contact with you. • Transferring to an NAIA institute? NAIA coaches cannot contact you, you need to take initiative. Once contacted, within 10 days the NAIA institution must notify in writing the athletics director or faculty athletics representative at the school where you are currently enrolled. They don’t necessarily need to receive permission to respond to you, but your current school must be notified that the contact has been made.
Campus visits for tryouts • Students are permitted a maximum of two days of tryouts throughout their entire career, and the tryout cannot interfere with school time. The tryout must occur on campus.
Admission standards for athletes • To participate in athletics in the NAIA, you must be admitted to the college or university under admission standards that are equal to or higher than those applied to the general student body.
Financial aid, scholarships, grants and student loans • NAIA only regulates number of athletic scholarships each school is allowed to give. The individual institution determines how much aid it gives to each athlete
Racial Issue College RGRC 2008 Highlights FBS- Football Bowl Subdivision; RGRC- Racial and Gender Report Cards http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btz08DBKVsU
Difference between NCAA & NAIA 1. The NCAA is a larger association and it represents the big universities and colleges in the US and Canada. On the other hand, the NAIA is a smaller association that represents small universities and colleges in the United States. 2. The National Collegiate Athletic Association is much older than the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics. 3. The NCAA conducts 87 national championships a year. On the contrary, the NAIA has only 23 championships a year. 4. Unlike the NCAA, the NAIA do not have very complex rules. 5. Where the NCAA has been divided into three divisions, the NAIA has no divisions. 6. When comparing their memberships, the NCAA has a larger membership than the NAIA.
The NCAA is the National Collegiate Athletic Association and contains three of the four college sports divisions: • Division I is home to many of the nation’s biggest and best colleges. Full scholarships abound in Division I and the competition is fierce. Many professionals come from Division I • Division II’s membership includes many smaller colleges and universities. there is no age limit for players in Division II, although there is a limit to how many semesters you can stay. The highest-ranking NCAA II teams are often of a higher caliber than the lowest-ranking teams of Division I, so it’s safe to say that there’s a lot of talent in Division II as well. This division also offers scholarships for top college athletes. • Division III does not offer scholarships, so its recruiting tactics are limited and the level of play varies greatly from team to team
The NAIA is the National Association for Intercollegiate Athletics. It offers fewer sports and recruiting restrictions than the NCAA, but its level of play is similar to that of the NCAA II division. There are close to 300 schools in the NAIA. Schools that are part of the NAIA tend to be smaller in campus size and student enrollment, making this division a good choice for students looking for a supportive environment both on and off the playing field.
As an Athlete and a Student • Focus more on school or sports? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnYPm9g9nGY&feature=related
Personal Identity • Viewed as an athlete by others. • Classification and claimed as a part of a group. • “Special Treatment” • Why do students participate in college athletics? • Why do some athletes quit once college starts?
Resources • http://www.ncaa.com/ • http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1853/College-Athletics.html • http://www.answers.com/topic/college-athletics-history-of-athletics-in-u-s-colleges-and-universities • http://www.answers.com/topic/college-athletics • http://www.naia.org