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Happy Thursday!

Happy Thursday!

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Happy Thursday!

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  1. Happy Thursday! • Please take out a pencil and place all of your belongings on the end counter except for your book. • Please don’t mess with any of the lab supplies yet 

  2. Photosynthesis Chapter 8

  3. Announcements • Exams • Review tomorrow • Collect Extra Credit • Say Hi to Mr. Jahn

  4. Agenda • Mini-Lecture/ Discussion • Leaf Activity • Class Discussion – Debrief Activity

  5. Standards & Objective • CSBS – 1F • Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide. • Today’s Goal • Recognize differences in leaf structures and interpret how these differences allow plants to diversify and perform photosynthesis at the optimum level in many different ecosystems.

  6. The Leaf - Pg. 208 in your Text

  7. Where does Photosynthesis take place? • Where does photosynthesis take place? • In the Chloroplasts (in plant cells) • Where are the Chloroplasts located? • In the green part (Leaves) of the plant • Are all leaves exactly the same on different plants?

  8. Leaf Morphology

  9. Where does Photosynthesis take place? • Where does photosynthesis take place? • In the Chloroplasts • Where are the Chloroplasts located? • In the green part (Leaves) of the plant • Are all leaves exactly the same on different plants? • NO! • But, Why?

  10. Leaf Lab/Activity • Answer the pre-activity questions • Look at 4 types of leaves. • Answer all the questions about the leaves • Hypothesis where leaf might be native, how does the structure assist in the function? • Draw the Leaf so the whole specimen fits in the box • Using the DISSECTING MICROSCOPE, look at the leaf. • Include magnification • Switch Stations every 7 minutes • Stop after 2 stations for discussion

  11. Where does Photosynthesis take place? • Where does photosynthesis take place? • In the Chloroplasts • Where are the Chloroplasts located? • In the green part (Leaves) of the plant • Are all leaves exactly the same on different plants? • NO! • But, Why?

  12. Activity Conclusion • What did you notice about leaf texture? • What did you notice about lead thickness? • How did the direction of veins differ? • Did any of these leaves seem like they were not from the same ecosystem as the others? • How does the structure of the leaf affect water flow around the plant? • How do all of these components combine to allow plants to perform photosynthesis at an optimal level?

  13. Homework • Finish lab • All questions are answered • All pictures are drawn and detailed • Make sure everything is quality

  14. IQ # 1 – 8.2 • Yes, its 8.2, we’re going out of order  • Write a one sentence summary for each of the following scientists experiments: (p. 204-206) • Van Helmont • Preistly • Ingenhousz • Write out the photosynthesis reaction. Count and list the total number of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules on both sides of the reaction. Do they equal? (p. 206) • What four items does photosynthesis require? Define pigment and chlorophyll. Why are plants green?

  15. Welcome Back! • Today – • Grades will be updated at the end of the period • Wednesday – • Extra Credit – 8.1-8.2 (or 8.3) • Friday – • Quiz!

  16. California State Standards • Cell Biology 1f: usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide

  17. Today • 8.2 • IQ # 1 • Lecture and Discussion • Tomorrow - Lab

  18. A. Investigating Photosynthesis • Investigations into photosynthesis began with the following question: “When a tiny seedling grows into • a tall tree with a mass of several tons, • where does the tree’s increase in mass come from?”

  19. ______________ Experiment (1643) • Put soil in pot and took mass • Took a seedling and took mass • Put seed in soil...watered...waited five years... the seedling became a tree. • He concluded that • He determined the Van Helmont’s the mass came from water the “hydrate” in the carbohydrate portion of photosynthesis

  20. ___________ Experiment (1771) • Put a lit candle in a bell jar- • Placed a mint plant in the jar with the candle- • Concluded • He determined Priestly’s The flame died out. Flame lasted longer plants release a substance needed for candle burning. plants release oxygen

  21. Jan Ingenhousz • ________________Experiment (1779) • Put aquatic plants in light... • Put aquatic plants in dark... • He determined: • _______________ (1948) • He determines • Known as the produced oxygen No oxygen Light is needed to produce oxygen Melvin Calvin carbon’s path to make glucose Calvin’s cycle

  22. 8-2 Photosynthesis: An Overview • Photosynthesis= • Plants convert ______________ → ______________ through a series of oxidation/reduction reactions. Process where plants use energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy Carbohydrate (glucose) and oxygen, a waste product. Sunlight energy Chemical energy OIL RIG Oxidation= Lose Electrons 6 CO2+ 6H2O + SUNLIGHT→ C6H12O6(SUGAR) + 6O2 Reduction = Gain Electrons

  23. sunlight O2 C6H12O6 CO2 H2O 6 CO2 + 6H2O + SUNLIGHT → C6H12O6 (SUGAR) + 6O2

  24. Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products Light Energy Chloroplast CO2 + H2O Sugars + O2

  25. B. Light and Pigments • Photosynthesis requires ______ (soil), ____________ (air), and ____ (sun), and ___________ (a molecule in chloroplasts). • Energy from the sun is in the form of _____. • Sunlight= perceived as white light= • The wavelengths you can see are part of the _______________. • Plants capture light with light absorbing molecules called ________. • The main pigment is chlorophyll (2 kinds) water Carbon dioxide chlorophyll light light A mixture of different wavelengths Visible Spectrum pigments Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b

  26. Figure 8-5 Chlorophyll Light Absorption Gammarays Micro-waves Radio waves X-rays UV Infrared Visible light Wavelength (nm) Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b • Chlorophyll absorbs light in the __________ and ___ wavelengths Blue-violet Chlorophyll b red Chlorophyll a V B G Y O R

  27. green • Chlorophyll reflects ______ wavelengths (that’s why plants appear green) • The energy absorbed by chlorophyll is transferred to _________ (in chloroplasts) which makes photosynthesis work. electrons

  28. IQ # 1 – 8.2 • Yes, its 8.2, we’re going out of order  • Write a one sentence summary for each of the following scientists experiments: (p. 204-206) • Van Helmont • Preistly • Ingenhousz • Write out the photosynthesis reaction. Count and list the total number of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules on both sides of the reaction. Do they equal? (p. 206) • What four items does photosynthesis require? Define pigment and chlorophyll. Why are plants green?

  29. Chromatography Lab • Cut Chromatography paper strip in half (longways) • Black Ink Marker • Draw line with marker ½ inch from bottom • Allow marker to dry. Put in Water/Solvent A. • Make sure not to allow marker line to touch water directly • Fold over top so the chromatography paper doesn’t fall into flask. • Leaf Pigment • Using the spinach extract and the capillary tube, draw a line of spinach ½ inch from the bottom • Repeat 20 times, allowing the extract to dry between each application. • Place in acetone, fold over top, replace cap • Make sure not to allow spinach line to touch acetone directly

  30. Homework • Finish Lab Questions • 8.1 and 8.2 Vocabulary Flashcards

  31. IQ # 2 (8.1) • How does the impala get its energy, how does the leopard get its energy? How do they differ? What it the ultimate source of energy? (Fig. 8.1) • What is ATP? How is ATP released from ATP? What does it stand for? What is its function? How do ATP and ADP differ? Which is the storage form? (p. 202) • What is a common use for ATP? Which direction are each of the ions being pumped?

  32. Wednesday Announcements • TODAY IS A MAKE-UP DAY!! • Wednesday Afternoon • Tutoring (pass back forms) • 8.1 & 8.2 (8.3) • Thursday • Observation • Friday • Lunch – Make-Up Lab • QUIZ (8.1 and 8.2)

  33. Agenda • IQ # 2 • Review Lab • Lecture/ Discussion • Section 8.1 – Energy and Life

  34. 8-1 Energy of Life • Energy= • Living organisms depend on energy. • Living things get energy from _______. • The ultimate source of energy is the _____. The ability to do work food sun

  35. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs • Autotrophs= • Example: plants use sunlight to make food • Heterotrophs= • Example: ___________- eat plants • ___________- eat animals that • have stored energy from • plants they eat • ___________- eat decomposing • organisms Organisms that make their own food Organisms that need to consume food for energy herbivores carnivores detritovores

  36. B. Chemical Energy and ATP • Forms of energy: light, heat, electricity, and • _____ (Adenosine Triphosphate)= Chemical energy (stored in bonds) ATP The basic energy source (chemical energy) of all cells Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups

  37. Storing Energy • ADP (Adenosine Diphospate) contains ____ phosphates instead of 3. • If a cell has extra energy, 2. Releasing Energy • To release energy stored in ATP, 2 Small amounts can be stored by adding a phosphate group to ADP molecules to produce ATP. The cell can break the high energy bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate group

  38. Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery Section 8-1 ADP ATP Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery

  39. Using Biochemical Energy • How ATP is used in the cell • - • - aids in • - • - • Cells contain a small amount of ATP. Only enough to provide a few seconds of activity. • ATP is great at ________________ but not good at • Glucose stores ___ times more energy than ATP. • The energy stored in Glucose can be used to Carry out active transport moving organelles throughout the cell Protein synthesis Producing light (ex. fireflys) transferring energy Storing large amounts of energy 90 regenerate ATP when the cell needs it.

  40. Homework • Study for 10 minutes using flashcards • Bring Coloring Items • Colored Pencils • Markers • Crayons • Section Assessment 8.1 • Pg. 203 #1-5

  41. 8-3The Reactions of Photosynthesis • A. Inside a Chloroplast • Site of Photosynthesis= The chloroplasts Reflectedlight Light Chloroplast Absorbedlight Transmittedlight

  42. B. Electron Carriers • Sunlight energy is transferred to • The electrons • High energy electrons require • ANALOGY: If you wanted to transfer hot coals from one campfire to another, it requires a special carrier like a pan or bucket. • Electron carriers pass electrons from carrier to carrier to carrier; • A Key electron carrier in photosynthesis is NADP+. • NADP+ + + →→ • (electron carrier) (high energy electrons) (hydrogen ions) (energy storing compound) • When energy is needed to do cellular work, the electrons in chlorophyll. gain a lot of energy. a special carrier (molecule/compound). Forming an electron transport chain. 2e- NADPH H+ Covalent bonds of NADPH are broken to release the high energy electrons.

  43. Light CO2 Sugars O2 • Photosynthesis is a two part process: • -aka: • 2. • -aka: • -aka: • -aka: Light-dependent reactions (located in thylakoid membranes) Light Reaction Light-independent reactions (located in stroma) Dark reaction Calvin Cycle Carbon fixation H20 Chloroplast Chloroplast NADP+ ADP + P Light- Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle ATP NADPH Section 8-3 Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview

  44. H2O CO2 Chloroplast • An overview of photosynthesis Light NADP+ ADP+ P LIGHTREACTIONS(in grana) CALVINCYCLE(in stroma) ATP Electrons NADPH O2 Sugar Figure 7.5

  45. Light-Dependent Reactions (Requires Light)·   Located in the ___________________________·   In the light reaction, ___________ is used to produce _____ and _______ thylakoid membrane light energy ATP NADPH

  46. KEY PLAYERS IN LIGHT REACTION: • ·Photosystem I and II: • ·Electron carriers: • ·Water: • ATP Synthase: Clusters of chlorophyll pigment ADP and NADP+ Donates electrons Enzyme (protein) that makes ATP

  47. Primaryelectron acceptor Electron transport Primaryelectron acceptor Electron transport chain Photons Energy forsynthesis of PHOTOSYSTEM I PHOTOSYSTEM II by chemiosmosis

  48. The production of ATP by chemiosmosis in photosynthesis Thylakoidcompartment(high H+) Light Light Thylakoidmembrane Antennamolecules Stroma(low H+) ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN PHOTOSYSTEM II PHOTOSYSTEM I ATP SYNTHASE Figure 7.9

  49. A. Photosystem II (PSII) * Absorbs light to 2H2O o  e- = o  O2 = o  H+= B. Electron Transport Chain* The light energy * The electrons get passed split (break up) water molecules → 4H+ + 4e- + O2 Donated to chlorophyll Released into air providing oxygen for us Released inside the thylakoid membrane excites electrons increasing their energy level. down an electron transport chain to photosystem I (PSI)