War Brings Change Chapter 12, section 2 Questions
Question #1 Explain how the Confederate government was organized.
Answer • branches, powers similar to US govt. • slavery was recognized in Confederate Constitution as well as states rights • Conf. govt. not as strong federally as the states
Question #2 What were the challenges for the Confederate government?
Answer • Jefferson Davis faced many challenges • had to create government from scratch while fighting war • lacked money and officials for government offices
Continued……………………….. • personal interests were usually put before common good • hard to forge loyalty in South (most disloyal to federal govt. so why be loyal to new one) • more personal sacrifice than northerners; economically and human resources
Question #3 Describe the Southern draft.
Answer • draft laws passed April/Nov. 1862 • first in American history • all white men (18-35) had to fight (exception-ownership of certain no. slaves) • Armed forces had to complete addition 3 years service
Question #4 What problems did they (Confederacy) have when trying to unite its member states?
Answer • economy controlled by government • production wool, cotton, leather taken out of private ownership
Continued…………………….. • Confederate govt. given more power than citizens comfortable with. • Citizens: Conf. govt. had more power than federal govt. ever had.
Question #5 How were “states rights” a weakness for the South?
Answer • state’s rights important to Confederate states; not fond of federal control • Each state working for own purpose did not allow for unity
Question #6 How were the draft laws in the north different from the south?
Answer • draft law passed in March 1863 • laws weaker than South • 776,000 drafted/46,000 served
Continued…………………………….. • 87,000 paid not to serve • 74,000 hired substitutes • many moved to Canada to avoid service
Question #7 How did Lincoln temporarily increase federal power?
Answer • the draft • freedom of the press • suspension of writ of habeas corpus
Question #8 What civil rights did President Lincoln suspend during the war?
Answer • rights of prisoners who objected to federal policies • 13,000 jailed without trial • freedom of the press
Question #9 What is a writ of habeas corpus?
Answer -defined: [Latin, You have the body.] A writ (court order) that commands an individual or a government official who has restrained another to produce the prisoner at a designated time and place so that the court can determine the legality of custody and decide whether to order the prisoner's release.
Question #10 How did Lincoln use habeas corpus during the Civil War?
Answer • suspension of writ of habeas corpus took away Constitutional right of the accused • in this case suspension allowed officers holding prisoners to be held without due process (justification of actions by the court/government)
Question #11 How did Lincoln permanently increase federal power?
Answer • New tax laws (Southern Democrats gone, Republicans pass many of their reforms without opposition) • Changes in finances; national bank currency (greenbacks) • Expansion in the U.S.
Question #12 Lincoln/Congress passed many new tax laws. What was the Internal Revenue Act of 1862?
Answer • First federal income tax passed in 1861 (3% income on those making over $800) Internal Revenue Act of 1862 further tax on liquor, tobacco, medicine, newspaper ads; established a stamp act…. • Bureau of Internal Revenue becomes permanent – now the Internal Revenue Service.
Question #13 National finances (currency) changed. How?
Answer • Too many state banks issuing own currency • Republican Congress changes system to establish national currency called “greenbacks” • Banks now chartered by federal not state governments (value of currency now guaranteed)
Question #14 Why was the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 passed?
Answer • Act permitted federal government to offer public land and money in return for construction of railroads (Nebraska to Pacific coast) • transcontinental railroads now from East to West
Question #15 How did the Homestead Act and Morrill Act help with national expansion?
Answer • Homestead Act-160 acres of federal land to settlers who lived on land for period of 5 years. • Morrill Act-public land sale money to fund agricultural colleges in mid-west **Both encouraged settlement in mid-west, encouraged farming and permanence.
Question #16 Summarize the impact of the Republican legislation during the Civil War.
Answer • Set policies for U.S. and established economic foundations to become most powerful industrial and agricultural nation in world. • Most active congress in history • fulfilled many policies of earlier Congresses • more capitalists society
Question #17 How were the Democrats and Republicans at odds?
Answer • Democrats minority in Congress • conflict great between both parties (violent protests against Republican congress in many cities) • Many immigrants didn’t want to fight for rights of African Americans
Question #18 Who were the Copperheads?
Answer • Anti-war Democrats who played on facial fears (speeches warning Republican policies would be harmful, especially when it came to jobs)
Question #19 When and why did President Lincoln feel the need to deliver the Emancipation Proclamation?
Question #20 What effect did it have on the enslaved as well as slave owners?
Question #21 Who were the Radical Republicans?
Answer • Those individuals angry over Lincoln’s lack of stance on issue of slavery • Wing of the Republican party who were abolitionists as well as individuals angry at the south.
Question #22 What was the contraband rule?
Answer Textbook: During the war, the property of the enemy may be seized and declared contraband-property of the government)
Question #23 How did African Americans take advantage of the Emancipation Proclamation and bring slavery to an end?
Answer • enlisted in the army (85% eligible to fight did so)
Question #24 Who was William Harvey Carney?
Answer • African American member of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment • became a sergeant in Union Army