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Causes of World War One

Causes of World War One

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Causes of World War One

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  1. Causes of World War One

  2. The underlying causes of World War I were: • Militarism – many countries were building up their military and getting ready for war. • Alliances – countries allied with one another for protection and markets. • Imperialism – countries wanted to expand and conquer other countries for land, resources, and markets. • Nationalism – strong feeling towards one’s country

  3. Imperialism: Imperialism caused European nations to compete with one another due to industrialism & the need for raw materials. All of which created an underlying tension in Europe Nationalism: The belief that national interests & national unity should be placed ahead of global cooperation & that a nation’s foreign affairs should be guided by its own self interest. Militarism: (The development of armed forces & their use as a tool of diplomacy) Because of nationalism & imperialism European nations began building up their armed forces. Each nation wanted its armed forces to be stronger than those of any potential enemy. By 1890, Germany was the strongest nationin Europe. They set up an army reserve system that drafted young men, trained them & then returned them to civilian life until they were needed.

  4. Alliance System: Nationalism, Imperialism & Militarism created mutual hostility, jealousy, fear & desires between the nations of Europe, which ultimately led to the signing of treaties between these various nations. These treaties committed them to support one another if they faced attack. There were two major alliances: the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente.

  5. World War I “The nations were caught in a trap. . .there was no looking back.” General Joffre, on the eve of the Battle of the Marne, August, 1914 What do you think General Joffre meant by this statement? Record on Left Side of your notes.

  6. Catch Phrases To Help You Understand Each Country’s Position: Britain and France - Europe’s liberal powers “What spoiled children we are” Germany and Italy - The new nations “We demand our place in the sun” Austria and Russia - Dying dynasties “Hard times make for hard lines” Central Europe - The Balkan “tinderbox” “We wanna be free!”

  7. Militarism • Alliances • Imperialism • Nationalism M A I N

  8. Militarism MILITARISM

  9. Long Term Causes • Militarism- • Glorifying Military Power • Keeping a large standing army prepared for war • Arms race for military technology

  10. Militarism-Definition • An arms race between the European powers • Fueled by the industrial development of the Industrial Revolution • Creation of weapons of mass destruction • Glorification of arms and war • Mislead the people with propaganda

  11. MILITARISM = Solve problems with guns • Glorification of Military • Naval Arms Race- • competition for strongest navy • Germany and England competed, building: DREADNOUGHT DESTROYERS

  12. Militarism & Arms Race • Germany is the military leader in terms of expenditures and planning. • Between 1870 – 1914 France and Germany doubled the size of their standing armies • In 1889 Britain decides on a policy that their navy will be 2 1/2 times as large as the second and third largest navies so that they maintain naval superiority • Britain introduces the Dreadnought class of battleship

  13. Arms Race and the First World War: Essential Background - 1 * the Daily Mail ran MANY stories (such as this one by William Le Queux) imagining German invasions. *also John Buchan, The Thirty-Nine Steps (about German spies). The Arms Race was as much about nations’ INSECURITY as about their NATIONALISM and EXPANSIONISM.

  14. Arms Race and the First World War: Increase in Spending There was a four-fold increase in defence spending of the great powers, 1870-1914.

  15. Comparative Military Build Up: 1870-1914 • Britain and Germany spent most per capita: • Germany $8.52 • Britain $8.53 • U.S.A. $0.32

  16. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.

  17. Arms Race and the First World War: Attitude towards war But note that militarism is also a government's attitude of mind, seeing war as a valid means of foreign policy.   GERMANY was especially militaristic.

  18. Arms Race and the First World War: Armies GERMANY, worried because it was in-between France and Russia, built up the largest land army. The German army was accepted as being the biggest and the best in the world.

  19. Arms Race and the First World War: This Russian postcard of 1914 shows Russia (symbolised by a woman) nailing the German eagle to a pillory after a war. But other countries built up their land armies too – in 1914, the fastest growing army was that of RUSSIA. This worried GERMANY a lot.

  20. The build-up of armies 1900-1914

  21. 1 Standing Armies in Europe, 1914

  22. Arms Race and the First World War: As well as their STANDING ARMIES, the nations introduced CONSCRIPTION, so they also had large numbers of trained RESERVES. All the nations except Britain had HUGE armies.

  23. The Naval Race 1906-1914 Britain and Germany The age of the Dreadnought

  24. The Naval Race 1906-1914 • Britain needed a powerful navy to protect her large overseas Empire especially as the army was small. • In 1900, Britain had the largest navy in the world. • Germany began to build up her own navy in 1898 and this made Britain believe they were trying to challenge her and her colonies. • These fears were partly responsible for Britain entering into agreements with France and Russia. • The German navy became a real threat to Britain after 1906 when both sides began building Dreadnoughts, a new battleship that could easily destroy any of the older type of battleships. • The race was on to build the most dreadnoughts.

  25. The Naval Race 1906-1914 • The race reached its peak in 1909. • The Germans refused to agree on the number of dreadnoughts they would build. • The British government only planned to build four but due to public pressure the government gave way and increased spending to maintain Britain’s naval superiority over Germany. • By 1914, Britain had won the naval race so this cannot be seen as a main reason for Britain going to war.

  26. Militarism • Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships. • The British feared an attack on their Empire

  27. Arms Race and the First World War: Navies - 1 If GERMANY was to have an empire, it needed a navy, so in 1900 Admiral Tirpitz introduced the German Navy Law, which announced a huge programme of building warships.

  28. Militarism: Dreadnoughts Postcard

  29. Arms Race and the First World War: Navies - 2 Both BRITAIN andGERMANY started building Dreadnoughts – the most advanced class of warship in the world. The Dreadnought essentially reduced everybody else’s number of warships to zero.

  30. Arms Race and the First World War: Navies - 3 There was a race between Germany and Britain to build the most Dreadnoughts. The graph shows the number built each year.

  31. Arms Race and the First World War: Navies - 4 Reginald McKenna, First Lord of the Admiralty 1908-11. In 1909 he told Parliament that the German navy was just about to become more powerful than the Royal Navy, and he instigated the press scare-campaign that forced Parliament to build more Dreadnoughts. The British government planned to build four Dreadnoughts in 1909, but the British public panicked, demanding: 'We want eight and we won't wait'.

  32. Answer the following questions on the political cartoon on the Left Side of your notes. 1. According to this cartoon, how did the Germans view the British navy? 2. In your opinion, was this a legitimate perception on the part of the Germans? 3. In light of this German perception of the British navy, why did the Germans feel justified in using their U-boats as they did?

  33. Militarism-Political Cartoons • THE MISTRESS OF THE SEAS • "Shall we attack, Sir?" "Oh, no; first we must signal for help! We are hardly three times as strong as the Germans.“ • March 1915 • This German cartoon is a bitter commentary on how they perceived the British Royal Navy. • The two men in admiral's uniforms are supposed to be British officers.

  34. Arms Race and the First World War: Navies - 5 In the end, Britain’s built many more Dreadnoughts than Germany.

  35. Militarism-Dreadnoughts

  36. Militarism Song: “Hymn of Hate” or “The Hasslied” • Chanted by the German navy prior to and during World War One: • French and Russian, they matter not, • A blow for a blow, a shot for a shot, • We fight the battle with bronze and steel, • And the time that is coming peace will seal. • You we will hate with a lasting hate, • We will never give up our hate. • Hate by water and hate by land • Hate of the head and hate of the heart • Hate of the hammer and hate of the crown • Hate of the 70 millions choking down • We love as one, we hate as one. • We have one foe and one alone: England.

  37. Militarism in British Newspapers, Prose and Poetry • “The British Empire is built up on good fighting by its army and its navy: the spirit of war is native to the British.”---The Morning Post • “I see the Junker and Militarists of England and Germany jumping at the chance they have longed for in vain for many years of smashing one another and establishing their own oligarchy as the dominant military power.”---George Bernard Shaw • “Count the life of battle good, and dear the land that gave you birth.”---Henry Newbolt

  38. “To The Troubler Of The World” by William Watson, The Times, August 6, 1914 • At last we know you, War-lord. (Germany) You, that flung • The gauntlet down, fling down the mask you wore, • Publish your heart, and let its pent hate pour, • You that had God for ever on your tongue. • We are old in war, and if in guile we are young, • Young also in the spirit that evermore • Burns in our bosom ev’n as heretofore, • Nor are these thews unbraced, these nerves unstrung. • We do not with God’s name make wanton play; • We are not on such easy terms with Heaven; • But in Earth’s hearing we can verily say, • “Our hands are purse; for peace, for peace we have striven.” • And not by Earth shall he be soon forgive • Who lit the fire accurst that flames today.

  39. “WAKE UP, ENGLAND” by Robert Bridges, The Times, August 8, 1914 • Thou careless, awake! • Thou peace-maker, fight! • Stand, England, for honour, • And God guard the Right! • The mirth lay aside, • They cavil and play: • The foe is upon thee, • And grave is the day. • The monarch Ambition • Hath harnessed his salves; • But the folks of the Ocean • Are free as waves. • For Peace thou art armed • Thy Freedom to hold: • Thy Courage as iron, • Thy Good-faith as gold. • Through Fire, Air, and Water • Thy trial must be: • But they that love life best • Die gladly for thee. • Thy Love of their mothers • Is strong to command: • The fame of their fathers • Is might to their hand.

  40. “WAKE UP, ENGLAND” continued • Much suffering shall cleanse thee: • But thou through the flood • Shalt win to Salvation, • To Beauty through blood. • Up, careless, awake! • Ye peacemakers, Fight! • ENGLAND STANDS FOR HONOUR. • GOD DEFEND THE RIGHT!

  41. “PRO PATRIA” by Owen Seaman, Punch, August 12, 1914 • England, in this great fight to which you go • Because where Honour calls you, go you must, • Be glad, whatever comes, at least to know • You have your quarrel just. • Peace was your care; before the nations’ bar • Here cause you pleaded and her ends you sought • But not for her sake, being what you are, • Could you be bribed and bought. • Others may spurn the pledge of land to land • May with the brute sword stain a gallant past • But by the seal to which you set your hand, • Thank God, you still stand fast! • Forth, then, to front that peril of the deep • With smiling lips and in your eyes the light, • Stedfast and confident, of those who keep • Their storied scutcheon bright. • And we, whose burden is to watch and wait--- • High-hearted ever, strong in faith and prayer, • We ask what offering we may consecrate, • What humble service share?

  42. “Pro Patria” (For One’s Country) continued • To steel our souls against the lust of ease; • To find our welfare in the general good; • To hold together, merging all degrees • In one wide brotherhood;- • To teach that he who saves himself is lost; • To bear in silence though our hearts may bleed; • To spend ourselves, and never count the cost, • For others’ greater need;- • To go our quiet ways, subdued and sane; • To hush all vulgar clamour of the street; • With level calm to face alike the strain • Of triumph or defeat;- • This be our part, for so we serve you best, • So best confirm their prowess and their pride, • Your warrior sons, to whom in this high test • Our fortunes we confide.

  43. “VERITAS VICTRIX” (Truth Victorious) by William Watson, The Times, Sept 10, 1914 • The Mill of Lies is loud, • Whose overseer, Germania’s Over-lord, • Hath overmuch adored • The Over-sword, • And shall be overthrown, with the overproud. • Praised be the overwatching Heavens, that though • Falsehood her blare of brass may pitch yet higher, • Truth hath her trumpets also, and these of gold, • And she can blow • Longer than any liar, • Fronting the sun, high on her mountains old.

  44. “WAR FEVER”: NOTED WRITERS AND THINKERS ADVOCATED WAR William James (American) “The plain truth is that people want war” (1912) Winston Churchill (British) “. . .in the field of battle life is at its best and healthiest while one awaits the caprice of the bullet.” (1900) von Treitschke (German) “War, with all its bruitality and sterness, weaves a bond of love between man and man, linking them together to face death, creating a bond that will last forever. He who knows history knows also that to banish war from the world would be to mutilate human nature.”

  45. Schiller (German) Man is stunted by peaceful days, In idle repose his courage decays. . . But in war man’s strength is seen, War enobles all that is mean. Belloc (British) “How I long for the Great War. It will sweep Europe clean like a broom!” Stravinsky (Russian) “War is necessary for human progress.” (1907) Holmes (American) “. . .man’s warlike nature and his destiny is battle. Civilization has not changed human nature. . .armed strife will not disappear from the earth until human nature changes.” (1895) Driant (member of the French assembly) “the outcome of the next war will be decided in less than a month.” (1906)

  46. “A War To End War” • “After long years of lethargy, our country was once more about to assert her authority as one of the greatest, some said THE greatest of the world powers. We had been too modest, too lenient, they said, and see what come of it; now, once for all, we must give such small upstarts a lesson…It was really a war to prevent future wars.”---Flora Thompson

  47. Militarism-Propaganda Postcards

  48. Militarism-Propaganda Poster