We are learning to: describe how objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motions that explain days, years, and seasons. We are looking for: description of: • Days- Earth rotates on its axis every 24 hours • Years-Earth revolves around the sun 365.25 days • Seasons-Earth revolves around the sun as the Earth is tilted on its axis
Movement of the Earth • Rotation is the earth spinning on its axis. • Earth’s rotation causes day and night (approx. 24 hours). • Revolution is the movement of one object around another object. • This is the movement of the earth around the sun. • Earth’s revolution determines the length of a year(365.25 days).
Seasons on Earth • Earth has seasons because its axis is tilted as it moves around the sun. • Vernal equinox has equal day and night (March). • Summer solstice has the longest day and shortest night (June). • Autumnal equinox has equal day and night (September). • Winter Solstice has the shortest day and longest night (December).
Seasons continued • During equinoxes, the sun is directly over the equator. • During the summer solstice, the sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer. • During the winter solstice, the sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn.
Why do we have night and day? • Earth’s rotation • Earth’s revolution • Tilt of the Earth on its axis • I need Help! 0 of 5 10
What causes Earth to experience different seasons? • It rotates on its axis while it revolves around the sun • It revolves on its axis while it rotates around the sun • It is tilted while it rotates around the sun. • It is tilted while it revolves around the sun. • I need help! 0 of 5 10
If the Earth’s Revolution was slower, we would experience • Longer days • Shorter days • Longer years • Shorter years • I need help! 0 of 5 10
Of the following, which does not affect seasons? • Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees • The Earth revolves around the sun • The Earth’s distance from the sun • I need help! 0 of 5 10
1. PRACTICE 2. EXTENSION Pretend you live in Northern Alaska. Write a paragraph about what the hours of day and night would be like the summer and winter. Make a drawing that illustrates the difference between a year and a day. 4. FRONTLOAD Pre/Post Check Key Terms 3. REVIEW ____ Eclipse ____ ____ Lunar Eclipse ____ ____ Solar Eclipse ____ ____ Tides ____ ____ Spring Tide ____ ____ Neap Tide ____ ____ Moon Phases ____ ____ Crater ____ What laws of motion apply to our new astronomy unit? Explain.
We are learning to: describe how objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motions that explain phases (moon cycles), eclipses, tides We are looking for: a description of -Phases-moon revolves around the Earth approximately once a month-Eclipse-are random predictable; one object moves in front of another object in relation to the position of the sun -Tides-high tide occurs approximately twice a day due to the gravitational pull of the moon
Phases of the Moon • The moon is illuminated by the sun. • The moon reflects sunlight to the earth. • The different phases of the moon is affected by the moon revolving around the earth as the earth revolves around the sun. • The complete cycle of phases takes 29.5 days, this is known as a synodic month. • Each phase takes about 3.5 days.
Solar Eclipses • Occurs during a new moon when the moon is between the sun and earth. • The shadow is the umbra, the partial shadow is the penumbra. • Doesn’t happen every month because the moon’s orbit around the earth is tilted and this prevents the sun, earth and moon from being in a straight line. • Do not look at a solar eclipse without protective eye gear.
Lunar Eclipse • Occurs during a full moon phase when the earth is between the sun and the moon. • More common than the solar eclipse. • Can be view without protective eye gear.
Tides • Tides are caused by the gravitational attraction between the moon and earth. • High tides are 12.5 hours apart. • Spring tide is the highest high tide and occur at full and new moon phases. • Neap tide is the lowest high tide and occur at first and last quarter moon phases.
Which phase occurs when the moon is in between the Earth and the sun? • Full moon • New moon • 1st Quarter moon • 3rd quarter moon 0 of 5 10
What causes us to see different phases of the moon? • Light reflects off of the surface of the moon. • The moon revolves around the Earth. • We see different perspectives of the moon. • All of the above. 0 of 5 10
What is the main cause of tides? • The gravitational pull of the moon • The gravitational pull of the sun • The gravitational pull of the Earth • I need help! 0 of 5 10
If the sun, moon, and Earth are perfectly aligned (as pictured), what event will occur on Earth? • Neap Tide • Solar Eclipse • Lunar Eclipse • Seasonal Change 0 of 5 10
When studying a solar eclipse, which would be a proper method of viewing the sun? • Wear sunglasses • Use a telescope • Use a magnifying glass • Use filters that are specifically designed to view eclipses • I need help! 0 of 5 10
FOUR BLOCK INTERVENTION INSTRUCTIONS • If you have not missed any questions, start with block #2 and then complete blocks #3 and #4. • If you have missed 2 or more, meet with the teacher. • Everyone else starts in block #1 and then complete blocks #2, #3, and #4.
1. PRACTICE 2.EXTENSION What would happen to the earth’s tides if the moon was not present? Using your knowledge of moon, write a paragraph (6-10 sentences)explaining why or why not? Explain how the moon affects the earth. 3. REVIEW 4. FRONTLOAD Draw a diagram illustrating all of the phases of the moon. Label all of the phases. What do you know about gravity and inertia?
We are learning to: explain that gravitational force determines motions in the solar system and keeps the planets in orbit around the sun.We are looking for: explanation that*All objects in the solar system have gravity.*Sun has the greatest mass, thus has the greatest gravitational pull within our solar system.*Since planets have inertia, they do not get pulled into the sun. *Gravity keeps the planets in orbit.
Models of the Solar System • In the geocentric model, Earth is at the center of the revolving planets. • Aristotle stated that the earth was in the center of the solar system. • Ptolemy stated that the earth was in the center of the universe. He thought that the planets moved in small circles as they moved around the earth.
Models of the Solar System • In the heliocentric model, Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun. • This model was developed by Nicolaus Copernicus.
Galileo • Used a telescope to view the solar system. • Observed the four larger moons that orbited Jupiter. • Observed the phases of Venus
Brahe & Kepler • Brahe carefully observed the positions of the planets. • Kepler had wrote laws that explained the behavior of planets orbiting the sun.
Forces that Keeps Planets in Orbit Around the Sun • Newton concluded that two factors, inertia & gravity, combine to keep the planets in orbit. • Inertia is tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. • Gravity is the force that attract all objects toward each other.
What is an object’s resistance to a change in motion? • Gravity • Inertia • Mass • Friction • I need help! 0 of 5 10
Predict what would happen if Earth stopped its forward motion around the sun? • It will fly off into space. • It will hit the nearest planet. • It will get pulled into the sun. • It will continue to revolve. 0 of 5 10
What keeps planets revolving around the sun? • The sun’s gravitational pull. • The planet’s mass. • The planet’s magnetic field. • The Sun’s inertia. • I need help! 0 of 5 10
Orbit Gravity Please copy circle and do this. • Fill in two words that closely relate to the two words given. • Write a paragraph explaining the significance of each word and how they fit together to form a concept?
We are learning to: *Compare the composition and orbits of comets and asteroids with that of Earth. We are looking for: Composition of comets, asteroids, and Earth1. Earth is composed of rock with many layers and has a core of dense metal2.Comets are composed of ice and dust (dirty snowball)3. Asteroids are composed of chunks of solid rock with heavy metalOrbits of comets, asteroids, and Earth’s1.Earth’s orbit is elliptical 2. Comet’s orbit is elongated and elliptical 3. Asteroids are elliptical and orbit in the asteroid belt or the Kuiper belt.
We are learning to: Describe the effect that asteroids or meteroids have when traveling through space and entering planetary atmospheres. We are looking for: • Asteroids are large rocky objects that orbit the sun. If they hit the Earth the impact could be catastrophic. • Meteorites are small rocky objects hit the Earth all the time and do not cause much damage. • A rock changes its classification based on its location: Meteoroid – rock located in outer space Meteor – rock burning up in the Earth’s atmosphere (Shooting Star/Meteor Shower) Meteorite – rock that hits the ground
The Sun • The sun produces its energy from nuclear fusion (core must reach 15 million degree Celsius). • Sun’s Atmosphere: • The photosphere is the inner layer of the sun that makes light. • The chromosphere is the middle layer and produces color. • The corona is the outer layer of the sun and produces ultraviolet radiation.
Solar Features • Solar winds are a stream of electrically charged particles coming from the corona. • Sunspots are areas of gas on the sun that are cooler than the gases around them. • Prominences are reddish loops of gas. • Solar flares are large explosions of gas on photosphere.
Inner Planets • Total of eight planets in our solar system. • The inner planets are also called the terrestrial planets. • Small in Size. • Have rocky surfaces.
Mercury • Mercury is 0.4 AU from the sun. • Diameter is 4,878 km. • Rotates every 59 days. • Revolves around the sun every 88 days. • Very thin atmosphere. • 0 moons. • Temperature between -170oC to 430oC. • Very heavily cratered.
Venus • Venus is 0.7 AU from the sun. • Diameter is 12,104 km. • Rotates every 243 days (retrograde). • Revolves around the sun every 225 days. • Very thick atmosphere of CO2. • 0 moons. • Temperature 460oC (Greenhouse Effect). • Sulfuric acid rain.
Earth • Earth is 1.0 AU from the sun. • Diameter is 12,756 km. • Rotates every 24 hours. • Revolves around the sun every 365.25 days. • Atmosphere of 78% nitrogen and 21 % oxygen. • 1 moons. • Temperature ?oC. • 70% of Earth’s surface is covered by water.
Mars • Mars is 1.5 AU from the sun. • Diameter is 6794 km. • Rotates every 24 hours. • Revolves around the sun every 687 days. • Thin atmosphere of CO2. • 2 moons(Phobos & Deimos). • Temperature -153oC to 20oC. • Polar caps of dry ice. • Olympus mons is the largest volcano in the solar system.
Outer Planets (Jovian Planets) • Found outside the asteroid belt between the asteroids and the Kuiper Belt. • These planets are large and made of gas.
Jupiter • Jupiter is 5.2 AU from the sun. • Diameter is 142,984 km. • Rotates every 9.9 hours. • Revolves around the sun every 11.9 years. • Thick atmosphere of hydrogen & Helium. • 63 moons (Io, Europa, Callisto & Ganymede). • Temperature -110oC. • Great Red spot is a large storm. • Has a ring system.
Saturn • Saturn is 9.6 AU from the sun. • Diameter is 120,536 km. • Rotates every 10.7 hours. • Revolves around the sun every 29.4 years. • Thick atmosphere of hydrogen & helium. • 60 moons (Titan). • Temperature -140oC. • Has an extensive ring system.
Uranus • Uranus is 19.1 AU from the sun. • Diameter is 51,200 km. • Rotates every 17.3 hours. • Revolves around the sun every 84 years. • Thick atmosphere of hydrogen & helium, with traces of methane. • 27 moons. • Temperature -195oC. • Has a ring system. • Axis is tilted 90o.
Neptune • Neptune is 30 AU from the sun. • Diameter is 49,500 km. • Rotates every 16.1 hours. • Revolves around the sun every 165 years. • Thick atmosphere of hydrogen & helium. • 13 moons (Triton). • Temperature -200oC. • Has an ring system. • Had a Great Dark Spot that has since disappeared.
Asteriod Belt • Asteroids are objects revolving around the sun that are too small and too numerous to be considered planets. • The asteroid belt is located between Mars and Jupiter. • Asteroids include Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta. • Over 300 asteroids have been identified.
Kuiper Belt • The region of the Solar System beyond the planets extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 55 AU from the Sun.
Meteoroids, Meteors & Meteorites • Meteoroids are pieces of rocks flying through space. • Meteors are meteoroids that have entered the earth’s atmosphere, burning up because of friction. • Meteorites are meteors that reach the surface of earth.
Oort Cloud & Comets • The Oort cloud is where the comets are found. • Comets are dirty snowballs that orbit the sun. • A comet has a head and tail, the head is made of the nucleus and coma. • The tail of the comet always points away from the sun because of the solar winds. • Halley’s comet appears every 76 years.