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Lecture 24

Polymers. Chemistry of Life. Monomers and Polymers Carbohydrates Photosynthesis Lipids and Proteins Next Exam. Lecture 24. Chapter 12.10  12.17. Monomers and Polymers. Polymers are giant molecules that consist of numerous (almost) identical subunits.

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Lecture 24

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  1. Polymers. Chemistry of Life. Monomers and Polymers Carbohydrates Photosynthesis Lipids and Proteins Next Exam Lecture 24 Chapter 12.10  12.17

  2. Monomers and Polymers Polymers are giant molecules that consist of numerous (almost) identical subunits. Polymers are held together by covalent bonds, not by van der Waals forces as was thought earlier. Natural polymers: proteins, starch, cellulose, rubber. Synthetic polymers: polyethylene, nylon, teflon. Monomer is a any small molecule that can undergo a reaction in which it is incorporated into a large molecule containing many similar units.

  3. Examples of Polymers Monomer: vinyl chloride Polymer: polylinylchloride (PVC) Ethene (C2H4) polyethylene Copolymers: polymers that consist of 2 different monomers. Elastomers: polymers containing monomers with two double bonds (chloroprene).

  4. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are carbon compounds with H and O which contain 2 atoms of O for each atom of H. They are produced from CO2 and H2O by green plants in the process of photosynthesis using solar energy. Examples: sugars (C6H12O6), starch, cellulose. These examples are monosaccharides, which may have either straight-chained or ring structure. Two monosaccharide rings form a disaccharide. Chains of more than 2 monosaccharides are called polysaccharide (e.g., cellulose).

  5. 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + 6O2 This is photosynthesis, an endothermic reaction that goes with a catalyst, called chlorophyll. Photosynthesis

  6. Lipids Fats, oils, and similar substances are called lipids. Lipids contain only C, H, and O, and are formed in plants and animals from carbohydrates. Lipids consist of a glycerol molecule with 3 attached fatty acidmolecules. Cholesterol is a lipid in the bloodstream, deposits of which in arteries cause atherosclerosis, a condition which restricts a flow of blood.

  7. Proteins Proteins are main elements of living cells. They include C, H, O, N, S, and P. Proteins are composed of 20 different amino acids. The amino acids contain nitrogen.

  8. Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids control the process of reproduction of proteins and themselves. Nucleic acid molecules consist of long chains of nucleotides. Each nucleotide has 3 parts, a phosphate group (PO4), a pentose sugar, and a nitrogen base. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) contains a sugar called ribose (C5H10O5), Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) contains deoxyribose (C5H10O4).

  9. The Human Genome DNA controls the development and functioning of a cell by determining the proteins the cell makes. DNA also reproduces itself. Changes occurring in the DNA structure due to errors of reproduction, called mutations, lead to evolution. Gene is a set of instructions for each protein in the form of a certain sequence of nucleotides. Genes make 3% of the human genome. The purpose of the rest 97% is not known. Origin of life: experiments show that life might have occurred spontaneously from simple components.

  10. Summary Life was developed from simple chemical compounds with the help of single-celled organisms for a very long time. DNA and RNA are the main agents responsible for copying and reproduction of living cells. The human genome represents all genetic materials in a particular organism.

  11. Test 2 What is included: The types of fundamental interactions: names, scales, relative strength. Models of the atom (Rutherford, Bohr). Quantum mechanics: exclusion principle, quantum numbers. Types of bonds in molecules (ionic, covalent). Periodic law: metals and nonmetals, properties of elements, names of the groups. Solutions, pH scale, essence of chemical energy Combustion, fuels Types of organic molecules

  12. Examples of questions: The presence of a hydroxide group (OH) is a characteristic of: an inorganic acid a base an alkane an aromatic hydrocarbon

  13. Examples of questions: Sodium is an example of: an alkali metal a halogen a noble (inert) gas an acid A chemical reaction that gives off energy is called: endothermic combustion neutralization exothermic The strongest of the fundamental interactions is: strong weak electromagnetic gravitational

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