Land Title in Tanzania Experience From Concern’s Livelihood Programmes
Programme Design and Development • Programme started in 2005, implementation in 2006 • 3 districts Iringa, Kilolo and Mtwara • A rights based programme so started with community consultation – land and issue as; • Primary means of production • In Iringa a great deal of conflict over land • Lack of title discouraged investment in land improvement
Programme Design and Development cont… • In connection with agriculture activities Concern elected to support poor farmers to get land tenure. • Process required providing resources to districts land officers • GPS/Total station • Computers • Software • Supporting the surveys and village land registries
Process for Issuing a CCRO • Awareness meeting on village land Act No. 5 of 1999 & land dispute act No. 2 of 2002 • Formation of land tribunals & committees • Training the tribunals and committees on their responsibilities • Demarcate and survey Village boundaries in collaboration with village land committees • Prepare and issue the certificates of Village Land (VLC)
Process for Issuing a CCRO cont... • Prepare Village Land Use Plans in collaboration village council and village assembly for approval. • Carry out land adjudication of individual land parcels within the Villages • Establish village land registries & equip registries with facilities like seals, village land register, cabinets etc • Establish database of land related information like land parcels coordinates picked through GPS. • Register and issue Customary Certificates of Right of Occupancy (CCROs) to individual owners. • The cost per CCRO estimated to be Tsh.45,000/= (about $29- for Iringa situation).
Challenges • Lack of equipment (GIS), staff and resources at the districts • Overall there is low awareness by community members with exception of Iringa rural • Currently using spot checks rather than a systematic survey approach due to resource constraint • Village executive officers (VEOs) who are key players in the process have lot of commitments and there is high turnover
Challenges cont... 5. High cost of establishing village registry. Unless supported by the donors or government, the villagers can’t afford by themselves. • Realised during the land use planning that land is not as plentiful as was thought i.e. Rarely enough for all community needs • In Iringa district; Demands exceed supply due to awareness of the people, while the capacity is limited.
Impact on Livelihoods • Less than expected as • Not many credit agencies recognise land as collateral • As there is no market for land value is depressed • Inertia as community not used to the concept • Much less in Mtwara than Iringa as land is valued higher in Iringa ...
Impact on Livelihoods cont... • In Iringa we are starting to see a land market develop and investment in farms we supported the process in 31 villages 30 more have asked for the surveys. • In 2009 Land department conducted seminar with villagers and financial institutions (CRDB, NMB, NBC, Pride and SIDO) • Now a total number of 10 individuals worth TzSh121,500,000 or $67,500
Social Impacts • Security of tenure for vulnerable groups especially women .... • The process involved LGAs, communities and civil society in a constructive engagement • A change in how farmers see themselves peasants to farmers to small businessmen
Suggestions for the Future • Provide LGAs with the tools to do the job (survey equip, software, satellite images) • Promote land tenure among citizens to stimulate demand • Make the linkage with donor agriculture projects especially SAGCOT • Fund the outcome not the process...
Joanisia Mikogoni (left), a widow aged around 60 Mkungugu village in Iringa, was concerned about what will happen with her land when she dies. “We know that having the certificate of ownership means our land is protected. I can farm on it now securely, and when I die I know the people to whom I currently rent pieces of my land won’t take it away. My children’s inheritance will be safe.”