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Paradigms

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  1. Paradigms

  2. Definition of a Paradigm & Synonyms • Definition: Paradigm means pattern or model. • Synonyms: Theory, Dogma, World View,Mindset, Tradition, Habit. Barker, 1993

  3. Paradigms A paradigm is a system of rules that does two things: 1. Sets limits or boundaries. 2. Provides guidance for solvingproblems. Barker, 1993

  4. Paradigms are Useful • They tell us the rules. • They focus our attention. • They help us identify what’simportant and what’s not. Barker, 1993

  5. Paradigm Paralysis This happens when aparadigmbecomes theparadigm – the only way to do something. Barker, 1993

  6. Back to Zero • When a paradigm shifts, everyone goes to Back to Zero. • Examples: GM and Toyota Motorola and Nokia Kodak and Polaroid Barker, 1993

  7. Ways To Zero Point • A new law. • A new invention. • Declarations of scientists. • Behavioural change of supplier • OR ……….

  8. The Impossibility Question • “What is impossible to do inyour life / business today, but, if itcould be done, would fundamentally change it for the better?” Barker, 1993

  9. Famous Impossibles(!) Phone Television Light Bulb Automobiles Computers Michael Dell (Dell Computers) Jeff Bezos (Amazon.com) Fred Smith (FedEx)

  10. Creativity and Innovation

  11. What if there is zero creativity in human world?

  12. History of Creativity

  13. Conceptions / Misconceptions • Eccentric Personality • Art • Intelligence • Good • Only a Natural Talent Amabile, 1996

  14. What kind of an act is creativity ?

  15. MSN Messenger order system for tea service • ISTANBUL

  16. Flowerpot washbasins and toilets • KASTAMONU

  17. Energy from the nucleus of an Atom • EINSTEIN

  18. INTERNET BOOKS

  19. Previous Approaches to Creativity Definition:Focus on Creative Process • Instead of random associations • “bisociative process” • the deliberate connecting of two previously noted, which was irrelevant in the old and is relevant in the new context (Kestler, 1964)

  20. Pablo R. Picasso Spanish Artist and Painter. 1881-1973 “Every act of creation is first of all an act of destruction.”

  21. Creativity • Creativity is the production of novel and useful ideas. New Uncommon Unique Valueable Useful Purposeful CREATIVITY X = Amabile, 1996

  22. Are they creative?

  23. INTERFERON The protein interferon, produced by animal cells when they are invaded by viruses, is released into the bloodstream or intercellular fluid to induce healthy cells to manufacture an enzyme that counters the infection.

  24. 1 3 2

  25. Context spesific Subjective judgement of novelty and value Creativity Assesment

  26. A Consensual Definition of Creativity • A Product or response is creative to the extent that appropriate observers independently agree it is creative. • Appropriate observers are those familiar with the domain in which the product was created or the response articulated. • Thus creativity can be regarded as the quality of products or responses judged to be creative by appropriate observers, and it can also be regarded as the process by which something so judged is produced. (Amabile, 1996)

  27. Why do we need creativity?

  28. Need for Creativity • Real need (a problem, a crisis or a conflict) • Opportunity creation (opportunity, advantage and benefit) (de Bono, 1992)

  29. Innovation Value New Uncommon Unique Valueable Useful Purposeful Commertialization Realization Marketable INNOV. VALUE X X = Creativity

  30. Competitiveness Innovation Growth Competitiveness Efficiency Profitability

  31. The Components of Creativity Creative Thinking Expertise CREATIVITY Task Motivation Amabile, 1996

  32. The Components of Innovation Management Practices Resources INNOVATION Organizational Motivation Amabile, 1996

  33. Creativity Strategies • Seeing What No One Else is Seeing • Knowing How To See • Making Your Thought Visible • Thinking What No One Else is Thinking • Thinking Fluently • Making Novel Combinations • Connecting the Unconnected • Looking at the Other Side • Looking in Other Worlds • Finding What You Are Not Looking For • Awakening the Collaborative Spirit

  34. Link up the nine dots with four straight lines without lifting your pen

  35.   

  36. Knowing How To See • Find a new perspective • Restructure in different ways • Do not approach reproductively • Reconceptualize the problem

  37. Knowing How To See

  38. Knowing How To See

  39. CPST Strech and Squeeze • Define problem • To find the appropriate level of abstraction, ask WHY? Four times • To strech a problem as a chain of questions with WHAT? • Continue until better understand of the problem

  40. Selling more computers? WHY WHAT • What is more computers about? • Larger distribution • What is larger distribution about? • Increasing point of sale • What is increasing point of sale about? • Designing dealer network system • … • Why do we need more computers? • To improve communication • Why should we improve communication? • To improve better social life • Why should we improve social life? • To lead the good life • …

  41. Making Your Thought Visible • Parallel with language a language of drawings, graphs and diagrams • Display information in different ways • Visual thinking

  42. Making Your Thought Visible

  43. Making Your Thought Visible

  44. Making Your Thought Visible

  45. CPST Mind Mapping • Theme (center it) • List keywords and prompts • Locate keywords on relation basis and connect • Use graphics (color, pictures) • Cluster • Revise