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The Evolution of Evolution

The Evolution of Evolution

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The Evolution of Evolution

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  1. The Evolution of Evolution

  2. Consider… • 10:30 pm on December 31: the first human-like animals emerge • Modern-looking humans have only been around for 100,000 years

  3. Evolution • Pre-Darwin • Plato and Aristotle • Carolus Linnaeus (1717-1778)

  4. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) • Continual adjustment • Ideas were flawed

  5. Lamarck vs. Darwin

  6. Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) • Catastrophism • i.e., Noah’s flood

  7. Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875) • Geological change was slow and continual , not due to catastrophes • uniformitarianism • Corresponded with Darwin

  8. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) • Reached similar conclusions as Darwin

  9. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

  10. The Voyage of the HMS Beagle1831-1836Galapagos Islands

  11. The Principles of Natural Selection According to Darwin • Variation • The essential underlying feature of evolution • Random mutations create a variety of individuals, some of whom are better suited to the environment

  12. The Principles of Natural Selection According to Darwin 2. Heritability • Offspring inherit characteristics from their parents

  13. The Principles of Natural Selection According to Darwin • Differential Reproductive Success • “Natural Selection” • Those who inherit favorable characteristics will thrive • Those who do not will die out

  14. British Moths and Kettlewell’s Experiment

  15. Directional vs. Normalizing Selection • Directional: adaptation toward an adaptive change • i.e., the peppered moth • Normalizing: adaptation against extremes • i.e., birth weight

  16. Evolution After Darwin • “Punctuated Equilibrium” • Stephen Jay Gould • The mapping of the human genome has changed everything • Genetic mutation is not the only element of change • “Switch” Genes