Supersonic Business JetSafety by Design Final PresentationJuly 29th, 2002 Mark Birney Kit Borden Adam Krause Jieun Ku Samson Lim Shawn Mahan
Overview • System Introduction • Certification Process • Certification Compliance • Functional Hazard Assessment • Prism System Analysis • Human Error Assessment • Preliminary System Safety Assessment • Uncertainty Analysis and Technology Assessment
Market Outlook for SBJs • A demand for more than 10,000 business jets expected between 2001 and 2011 (Source: Gulfstream) • Gulfstream estimates market for environmentally friendly SBJ’s to be 10% of annual subsonicmarket • DARPA has heavily prioritized projects aiming at solving technology challenges of supersonic flight, notably the Quiet Supersonic Platform (QSP)
“Voice of the Customer” • Reduce Travel Time (more than 50%) • By Increasing Cruise Speed (100%) • By Reducing Airport Ground Time (70%) • Increase Versatility & Efficiency • By Using General Aviation & Other Smaller Airports • By Reducing Ground Transportation Time • Improve Productivity & Business Opportunities • By Providing Doorstep-to-Destination Travel In order to satisfy customer requirements, a long range supersonic business jet is required.
Limitations & Requirements Gulfstream market research has indicated significant design barriers to overcome • Sonic Boom Issues • “BANG” & Nose Shock Overpressure (< 0.5 psf) • Environmental (Non Sonic Boom Related) Issues • Takeoff/Landing Noise • NOX & CO2 Emissions • Ozone Depletion • Operational Issues • Supersonic Flight Over Land • Operable from Regional Airports • Efficient Operations at Both Subsonic & Supersonic Speeds • High Availability Required
QFD Results • By using the QFD as an initial screening test it was determined that: • Mission profile would be very important (Cruise Mach number weighting) • The choice of propulsion system would have a large impact on the system • Aircraft geometry (Planform shape, fuselage area ruling) was also significant
Emissions • Current Regulations govern LTO NOx emissions based on standard Take-off and Approach Cycle • Allowable emissions based on Design Thrust and OPR of engine • No current regulations for CO2 or cruise NOx emissions, but ICAO is developing guidelines governing these parameters • The future regulations may prove very important because of relatively high NOx emission rates at high mach numbers Courtesy NASA Glenn Courtesy NASA Glenn
Sideline and Fly-over Noise • Stage IV Noise Regulations require 10dB cumulative reduction over Stage III • Applies to Aircraft certified after 2006 Courtesy NASA Glenn Courtesy NASA Glenn Courtesy NASA Glenn
Mission Profile Cruise Climb Mach 1.8 over ~ 3,800 nm. ~66,500 ft ~56,700 ft Climb II Descent ~32,000 ft Sonic Boom Approach Climb I Land Takeoff • Mission profile based on customer’s desire for direct flights • 4000 nautical mile design range
Performance and Economic Metrics • Constraint Values based on Government regulations as well as customer requirements • All targets are met except for sonic boom and economic targets.
System Breakdown • Based on B-777 • System Breakdown
Engine Configuration Low Bypass Ratio Mixed- Flow Turbofan
Certification Process Shawn Mahan
Safety and Certification Overview Product Development Conceptual Design Preliminary Design Detailed Design System FHA SSA Aircraft FHA Aircraft FTA FMEAs System FTAs PSSA System FTAs Certification Planning and Safety Assurance
Certification - Introduction • The SSBJ and SBBJ engine will need to be certified by the FAA before it can enter revenue and passenger service • The FAA has outlined the method to obtain an Original Design Approval on its website. • The following slides will provide an overview of the Certification Program for the SSBJ Engine
Original Design Approval Process • As outlined on the FAA Certification Website, an original FAA design approval is a six phase process in which an applicant applies for, and the FAA may issue, a type certificate or design approval of a product or a major design change to a product. • Phase I: Partnership for Safety Plan • Phase II: Conceptual Design and Standards • Phase III: Refined Product Definition and Risk Management • Phase IV: Certification Project Planning • Phase V: Certification Project Management • Phase VI: Post Certification • Detailed information can be found in The FAA and Industry Guide to Product Certification, available on the FAA Website.
Key Players and Roles • Communication and cooperation are the keys to a successful program. • Key Players and Roles are defined and summarized in The FAA and Industry Guide to Product Certification
Certification Example • It took DAL 3 years to complete a small structural modification to the B757 pylon. • There were several factors that led to delays: • Large companies tend to divide functions across several groups • Engineering • AD Compliance • NTSB / FAA Liaison • Internal DERs • The FAA organization is large and decentralized • Which ACO will you need to coordinate through? ATL ACO, LA ACO, SEA ACO • Politics • Coordinating project status meetings and conformity inspections is difficult.
Avoid the Pitfalls • Plan well and early, get training from the FAA if you need it. • Always pad your schedule and plan for contingencies. • Defeat Organizational Barriers • Develop a good reporte with the FAA. • Assign one person as a dedicated project manager. • Get written commitments! • Organize and document your progress and problems.
Deliverables • The Certification process will generate several types of data. • Data requirements will be required by applicable sections of the FAR and the FAA. • The following list is taken from The FAA and Industry Guide to Product Certification
Familiarization and Board meeting minutes Program Specific Certification Plan Product Certification Team and Management status reviews Application for Type/Production Certification Letter of Application Acknowledgment Certification Project Notification Type Certification Basis Issue Papers, Special Conditions, Exemptions, Equivalent Level of Safety Findings Burden Assessments Issues Tracking List Compliance Check List Conformity Procedures Type Inspection Authorizations and Conformity Requests Delegation plan Compliance Data (e.g.,test plans, reports, analyses.) Type Inspection Report Installation and Operating instructions Flight Manual Structural Repair Manual Instructions for Continued Airworthiness Continued Airworthiness management plan Type Design Approvals Type Certificate Data Sheet Production Approvals Production Limitation Record Airworthiness Certifications Compliance Summary Document Project Evaluation Forms Data Types
Data Retention • Both the FAA and the Applicant are responsible for maintaining and storing data. • FAA Order 8110.4B provides the following information about data retention.
Certification Basis • The Certification Basis identifies the applicable standards to which the Applicant must show compliance. • It also includes the need for special conditions, exemptions, and equivalent safety findings, if any. • The proposed certification basis is established by the FAA at the beginning of a TC program.
Certification Basis SSBJ Certification Basis 14CFR Aircraft Engine Sec 21.17, Designation of Regulations X X Sec 21.29, Issue of Type Certificate X X Part 25, Transport Category Aircraft X Part 33, Engine X Part 34, Fuel Venting and Emissions X X Part 36, Noise Requirements X X Part 43, Maintenance Requirements X Sec 21.16, Special Conditions X X Sec 21.21(b)(1), Equivalent Level of Safety X X Part 11, Exemptions X X
Certification and Testing • FAR Part 33 covers Engines • Includes supersonic engine regulations • FAR Part 36 covers Noise • Includes supersonic noise regulations for Concorde only • These two parts were chosen to study in further detail because of the system chosen to study (propulsion) and because noise is important for any commercial aircraft and especially the supersonic aspect of this design.
Noise Requirements • Lack of generic supersonic requirements leaves two main options • Seek an exception to the existing regulations • Seek new rule making activity for appropriate regulations
Exception to existing rules • There could be a time savings because rule making is a long process. • Obtaining an exception involves fewer people than new rule making. • An exception would not be a flexible should new regulations come into being during the life of the aircraft.
New Rules • Regulations for non-Concorde supersonic commercial aircraft will come eventually • Asking for those rules now has two advantages • Allows for greater shaping of the regulations as they are created • Ensures continuing compliance • Both rule making and the design will be long processes, so the time penalty should be minimal
Example of Noise Testing • Basic testing techniques remain the same regardless of noise levels allowed. • New rules would merely give the allowable levels. • New techniques may be required for supersonic noise evaluation. Courtesy NASA Glenn Courtesy NASA Glenn Courtesy NASA Glenn
Functional Hazard Assessment and Certification • The FHA is part of the processes described in SAE 4761. • Certification is driven by the FARs. • Meeting the standards derived from SAE 4761 improves performance for the FAR requirements.
PRISM • Developed By Reliability Analysis Center (RAC) • Performs system-level failure rate assessments • Disadvantages • No redundancy function • No OR gate function • Human factors are not properly considered
PRISM Grade Process Factors Construct system tree Summarize Component Failure Rates at Assembly Level Summarize Assembly Failure Rates at System Input Failure Rates for Each Components Get Report From PRISM PRISM Flow Chart
SBJ Total Failure Rate ** (11.504/M Calendar Hours)