Describing Matter Chapter 7 Lesson 1 Page 258
Matter Why does matter, matter? Everything in the universe is: • Matter • Energy Where did this come from?
Matter What creates our energy? • The Sun (stars) What was the process that creates the energy? • Nuclear Fusion (taking two atoms and fusing them together to make a new atom) What else is created by that process? • Helium from Hydrogen which is an element which is MATTER!
Matter From the sun we get matter What is matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space If matter has mass and takes up space (volume) what should it also have? Density (mass/volume) D= M/V
Atom What makes up matter? The smallest most basic part of matter is The atom (page 261) Atom- the basic particle from which all elements are made Everything is made of matter and all matter is made of atoms! (page 261)
Atom Atoms are made of three parts • Protons (positive charge) • Neurons (no charge) • Electrons (negative charge)
Atom Everything is made of matter All matter is made of atoms (Particle Theory of Matter, page 261) Is all matter the same? Why or why not?
Atom Atoms are all a little different because of the number of protons. One proton changes the whole atom! Because of that little change we get all of the things you see around you. The changes in the atom cause different elements
Elements Element- a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by chemical or physical means. (It is in its purest form) You can have 1 atom or a million atoms together, but if they have the exact same number of protons, then you have the same element.
Elements: The simplest substances In ancient times they believed there were only 4 elements and that everything was made of these 4 elements or a combination of them. This changed in the 1600’s Earth Fire Air Water
Element Chemists realized that there are most than 4 elements. There are over 100! Some are found in nature (98), others are manmade through nuclear reactors or particle accelerators (aprox. 20) You can see all of the elements on the periodic table Why or why not?
Elements Everything is made of matter All matter is made of atoms Atoms make different elements Is all matter a pure element? Why or why not?
Molecules Atoms combine to make molecules Molecule- a group of two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond ( page 261) Molecules can be atoms of the same element or different elements
Molecules Molecules of the same element make the it more stable (it doesn’t have to pair with anything else)
Molecules Molecules of the different elements make all new substances Oxygen + Hydrogen+ Hydrogen= Water New substance!
Molecules Draw each of these molecules next to the molecule square on you chart
Molecules Molecules of made of different elements create compounds Compound- a substance made of two or more elements that are chemically combined in a set ratio (page 262) What does “a set ratio mean?” There is always the same number of element A compared to element B. H2O= 2 hydrogen atom for every 1 oxygen atom
Compounds 2 Hydrogen Atoms 1 Oxygen Atom = Water (H20) 1 Carbon Atom 2 Oxygen Atoms = Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 1 Sodium Atom 1 Chlorine Atom = Salt (NaCl)
Compounds Everything is made of matter All matter is made of atoms Atoms make different elements Elements combine to make compounds Are all compounds a pure substance that are chemically combined? Why or why not?
Mixtures Can you add two elements together and still separate them later? If you can separate the elements it not chemically combined, it is a mixture Mixture- made of two or more substances that are together in the same place, but their atoms are not chemically combined (page 263)
Mixtures • There are 2 types of mixtures: • Heterogeneous (different) • Homogeneous (same)
Heterogeneous Mixture • You can see the different parts, you can usually see particles, and are easily separated • Examples: Sand, salad, smoothie, trail mix, dirt, etc.
Homogeneous Mixtures • Are so evenly mixed you can’t see the different parts. • It is difficult to separate the parts of this type of mixture • Air, fruit juice, and solutions are examples of a homogeneous mixture
And the different combinations of these parts are how EVERYTHING in the universe is made!!!!