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Darwin

Darwin. 1809 - 1882. Key work. Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. All individuals of a particular species are not identical. Physical and behavioural changes occur randomly. If the charataristics improve the individual’s chances of survival they are passed on to the next generation.

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Darwin

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  1. Darwin 1809 - 1882

  2. Key work Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

  3. All individuals of a particular species are not identical. • Physical and behavioural changes occur randomly

  4. If the charataristics improve the individual’s chances of survival they are passed on to the next generation

  5. These offspring are also more likely to survive so the characteristic will increase in the population over time

  6. The role of reproduction and the sexual instinct are central to Darwin’s work

  7. Humans are the product of evolution. • We share a common ancestor with our close relatives the apes

  8. This means that results from psychological research on animals can be used to explain human behaviour and thought processes. • Much psychological research has used animals (eg Harlow’s monkeys to study attatchment).

  9. Darwin studied the development of his own children by detailed observation • He studied facial expressions and found that some expressions were universal

  10. Major Influences on Psychology

  11. Behaviourist Approach • Humans and animals have common ancestors so explanations of animal behaviour should be able to be applied to human behaviour. • The behaviourists used animals in their work

  12. The Work of Freud • Darwin stressed the importance of sexual instinct. • Freud’s work showed how sexual instinct affected a person on a psychological level

  13. Cross-Cultural Psychology • Darwin's work on facial expressions influenced the development of Cross-cultural Psychology. • He also initiated the nature vs nurture debate in psychology

  14. Developmental Psychology • Influenced the development of Developmental Psychology • Darwin's methods of observation of his own children are still used by developmental psychologists.

  15. Evolutionary Psychology • This branch of Psychology tries to explain behaviour in terms of adaptation to the environment. • Genes can account for psychological as well as physical characteristics

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