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Darwin

The Theory of Evolution - Darwin’s Theory -Natural Selection -Modern Theory -Evidence Supporting -Theories on Rates of -Estimated Patterns of Evolutions -Examples Supporting Evolution = gradual change in a species do to adaptation over time. Darwin. from England

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Darwin

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  1. The Theory of Evolution-Darwin’s Theory -Natural Selection -Modern Theory -Evidence Supporting -Theories on Rates of -Estimated Patterns of Evolutions -Examples SupportingEvolution = gradual change in a species do to adaptation over time

  2. Darwin • from England • 1831, age 22 rode the Beagle • Visited and observed the animals at the Galapagos island • 1859 published On the Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selecton http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.brunette.brucity.be/PEGASE/DARWIN/map.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.brunette.brucity.be/PEGASE/DARWIN/enbeagl2.htm&h=319&w=597&sz=178&hl=en&start=15&um=1&tbnid=YfGgaZyQ2FuEUM:&tbnh=72&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3DDarwin%2Band%2Bthe%2BBeagle%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den-us%26sa%3DN

  3. Red = gradual growth Yellow = exponential growth Darwin’s Theory • Animals will overproduce if nothing keeps them in check • Draw graph here • Animals struggle to survive • Variation among populations • Organisms with favorable variations survive & reproduce • Populations evolve (adaptation = change over time according to evironmental pressure) http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/u/ssmoland/rpg/planeettojen_suunnittelu/latex_sorsa/darwin_finches.jpg Natural Selection is Darwin’s Mechanism for Evolution

  4. Natural Selection • term describing the theory that populations change in response to their environment • (traits favorable = organisms survive and make babies) Types of Selection • Stabalizing – • Disruptive – • 3. Directional –

  5. stabalizing directional disruptive http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L1/Evolution/ppt/lecture6/img022.JPG&imgrefurl=http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L1/Evolution/ppt/lecture6/sld022.htm&h=450&w=600&sz=112&hl=en&start=7&um=1&usg=__8KE3EKT509uPw0ztun2e-rWnlIo=&tbnid=YCVhQB5FwnzcXM:&tbnh=101&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtypes%2Bof%2Bselection%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den

  6. Draw 3 graphs: • For all 3 graphs • Y axis is number of birds • X axis is bird tail length: • Short, medium, long • Graph 1, predators like short tails • Graph 2, predators like med. tails • Graph 3, predators like long tails

  7. Modern Theory of Evolution • Variations • Animals that mimic (mimicry) • Animals that blend in (camouflage) • Suited for environment • Traits to survive and reproduce • Evidence from fossils http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.natureinstitute.org/txt/ch/images/moth_fig1.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.natureinstitute.org/txt/ch/moth.htm&h=252&w=300&sz=45&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=BMbDbC-rqBpBGM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=116&prev=/images%3Fq%3DKettlewell%2527s%2Bmoths%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den-us%26sa%3DN

  8. Evidence for Evolution • Fossils that suggest connection • Genetic comparisons (similarities) • Proteins • Nucleic acids • Functionless structures (sx) • Vestigial sx (Fig. 13-12) • Anatomical studies • Homologous sx • Analogous sx • Embryological development (pictures next slide, compare to p.288) Homologous Sxs http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/139393_forelimb_homology.jpg

  9. Snapping turtle embryo Chicken embryo http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgnov04macro/series.jpg Sucker fish embryo Human embryo http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/devel/c7.46.17.human.fetus.jpg http://www.fws.gov/grandjunctionfishandwildlife/images/41-rz-embryo-1_small.jpg

  10. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.gonzaga.org/teachers/jausema/web/biol/New-embryo-figure.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.gonzaga.org/teachers/jausema/web/biol/notes/evol_out.html&h=236&w=168&sz=19&hl=en&start=8&um=1&usg=__v58726ghHEiu3OTeuuEZ6qI7y5Y=&tbnid=vGaxe93PT-eeNM:&tbnh=109&tbnw=78&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dvestigial%2Bstructures%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DNhttp://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.gonzaga.org/teachers/jausema/web/biol/New-embryo-figure.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.gonzaga.org/teachers/jausema/web/biol/notes/evol_out.html&h=236&w=168&sz=19&hl=en&start=8&um=1&usg=__v58726ghHEiu3OTeuuEZ6qI7y5Y=&tbnid=vGaxe93PT-eeNM:&tbnh=109&tbnw=78&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dvestigial%2Bstructures%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN

  11. Evolution theory - populations, not individuals evolve - gene pool changes, by the allele frequencies changing - see board for allele’s of moths Speciation – the evolution of a new species species – group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Barriers to species breeding – - geographical - behavioral - physical

  12. DO NOT WRITE Estimated Patterns of Evo. • Divergent Evo – • Leads to speciation • Convergent Evo – species become more similar

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