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Oral Presentations. This presentation will answer these five questions. What are the different types of presentations? What are the elements of the communication process? How do you create an effective presentation? What are the elements of all good presentations?

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    1. Oral Presentations The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    2. This presentation will answer these five questions... • What are the different types of presentations? • What are the elements of the communication process? • How do you create an effective presentation? • What are the elements of all good presentations? • What “pitfalls” should you try to avoid? The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    3. Three Goals • To turn nervousness into confidence • To learn how to evaluate a presentation • To advise others to become better presenters The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    4. #1: The Different Types of Presentations You could make a thousand different types of presentations … Informing Demonstration Definition Description Expository Persuasion The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    5. #1: The Different Types of Presentations • Impromptu - “Off the cuff” • Memorized - Recited • Manuscript - Read • Prepared - Spoken with cue cards The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    6. #2: Elements of the Communication Process Message Speaker Listener Response The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    7. #2: Elements of the Communication Process Key learning … Speakers must be aware of all aspects of a presentation, NOT just how they are feeling at that moment … the speaker is only one part of the whole …. The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    8. #2: Elements of the Communication Process REMEMBER... You have the audience and, more importantly, the message to think about. Realize this and you should begin to take control over your anxiety. The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    9. #2: Elements of the Communication Process Speaker – The speaker wants to communicate an idea Message – The speaker puts the idea into a structured message Channel – The message is sent through a channel to the audience The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    10. #2: Elements of the Communication Process Audience – the audience receives and interprets the message Response – the audience responds to the message The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    11. #2: Elements of the Communication Process The speakermust focus onwords, attitude, tone, and outward appearance The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    12. #2: Elements of the Communication Process The listener has needs which you - the speaker - are trying to meet. Just as you would “write for your readers”, you should try to “speak for your listeners, not for yourself.” The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    13. #2: Elements of the Communication Process Message = Content + Form Content – the information you want to deliver Form– Structure of the message, the style, the features of delivery The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    14. #2: Elements of the Communication Process Response Pay attention to the reaction of the audience during and after the speech The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    15. #2: Elements of the Communication Process RESPONSES to a speech can include: • non-verbal or verbal responses before and during speech • questions right after speech • questions and comments received later The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    16. #2: Elements of the Communication Process Use the RESPONSE to your presentation to become a better presenter The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    17. #3: Creating a Presentation Presenting is only one part of the equation! The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    18. #3: Creating a Presentation Successful presentations involve Planning & Practice The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    19. #3: Creating a Presentation The more you PLAN and PRACTICE, the less nervous you will be. The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    20. #3: Creating a Presentation The more you PLAN and PRACTICE, the more effective you will be. The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    21. #3: Creating a Presentation Pfieffer uses the outline ROTGD to help you think about planning your presentation Research Organization Text Graphics Delivery The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    22. #3: Creating a Presentation Planning and writing your presentation should be given equal or moreimportance than the delivery The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    23. #3: Creating a Presentation Research • Who is the audience? • What is the purpose? • How much time to speak? • Know the topic . . . The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    24. #4: Elements of a Good Presentation Organization • Introduction - Tell them what you are going to tell them • Body - Tell them • Conclusion - Tell them what you told them The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    25. #4: Elements of a Good Presentation The Introduction: • Opener • Objective • Preview The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    26. #4: Elements of a Good Presentation The Body Key Point 1, Supporting Material, Transition Key Point 2, Supporting Material, Transition Key Point 3, Supporting Material, Transition Remember you have a limited amount of time – gauge the volume of content carefully. The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    27. #4: Elements of a Good Presentation The Conclusion • Summary • To Do The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    28. #4: Elements of a Good Presentation Text • Simple descriptive words are better • Never read from a script • Never memorize a script • Use cue cards with major points written in large letters (the script) The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    29. #4: Elements of a Good Presentation Rule of 7 for slides or overheads try not to put more than 7words on 7lines The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    30. #4: Elements of a Good Presentation Graphics • Fit the setting • Support the message • Wake the audience • Used sparingly The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    31. #4: Elements of a Good Presentation and are… • Pictorial • Colourful • Creative The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    32. #4: Elements of a Good Presentation Delivery • Energetic – enthusiastic • Delivered with care • Be careful with hand gestures The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    33. #5: The Pitfalls to Avoid • Mispronunciation • Filler words: ahhhs, ummmms, uhhhs, “you know”, “right?” • Not being heard • Uninteresting voice The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    34. #5: The Pitfalls to Avoid • Ineffective gesturing • Equipment not working • Using visual aids incorrectly • Wrong clothes • Opening with a joke The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    35. #5: The Pitfalls to Avoid • Poor eye contact • Weak introduction • Ineffective transitions • Weak conclusion (Thank You!) The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    36. Overcome Nervous Anxiety Goals to Achieve... Change the nervousness to confidence The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    37. Confidence adds energy to a presentation The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    38. Overcome Nervous Anxiety • It is not fear you are feeling; it is nervousness • Identify the source – self-consciousness • Recognize the solution – your ability • Think positively – I am … I can ... I know … • Relax • Gather support from the audience The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    39. Evaluating a presentation means making a critique of both the strong and weak aspects, not just a criticism. The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    40. Evaluating a Presentation • Focus on the positive • Tell presenters what you liked • If someone is doing something that really does not work, show them a technique that does work • Do not criticize without providing a solution or suggestion The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    41. Focus on the message, but also think about how the presentation is created, organized, and delivered The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    42. Critical Reflection... How did the audience respond to your presentation? What did you do well? What skills do you need to improve before your next presentation? The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    43. Remember… Present yourself positively every chance you get. The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005

    44. References Arredondo, Lani. How to Present Like a Pro: Getting People to See Things Your Way. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1991. Koch, Arthur. Speaking With a Purpose. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn Bacon, 2001. Pfeiffer, William S. Pocket Guide to Public Speaking. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002. The Writing Centre - StFX University, 2005