Oedipus the KingKing Lear 中外文學 黃心雅 教授 2008年12月11日
Introduction to Greek Tragedy-- • Greek Tragedy– • Aristotle, Poetics • The Structure of a Greek Tragedy • 1. Prologue (開場白) = setting forth the subject • 2. Parodos (歌隊進場) = the song accompanying the entrance of the chorus • 3. Episode (場景) = scene in which one or more actors take part • 4. Stasimon (歌隊評唱) = song of the chorus • 5. Exodos (終場及歌隊退場) http://mail.tku.edu.tw/kiss7445/KissHomePage/Literature-Arts/Greek_tragedy.htm
Definition of tragedy according to Aristotle's Poetics • Tragedy is the imitation of an actionthat is seriousand also having magnitude, complete in itself;in a dramatic, not in a narrative form;with incidents arousing pity and fear,wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions. • imitation : mimesis • action = plot = the downfall of a noble hero • complete: beginning, middle, endingbeginning in medias res • parts of the work: Structure of tragedy • catharsis: psychological effect of tragedy • the hamartia, or tragic flaw http://mail.tku.edu.tw/kiss7445/KissHomePage/Literature-Arts/Greek_tragedy.htm
Ancient Greek Tragedy Aeschylus: (525 BC/524 BC – 456 BC/455 BC) Oresteia Sophocles: (496 BCE - 406 BCE) Oedipus the King: Euripedes: (ca. 480 BC–406 BC) Medea: the myth of Jason and Medea
Oresteia by Aeschylus • Oresteia: A trilogy about the end of the curse on the House of Atreus • Agamemnon: the homecoming of Agamemnon, King of Argos, from the Trojan War • The Libation Bearers: the reunion of Agamemnon's children, Electra and Orestes, and their revenge • The Eumenides: Orestes, Apollo, and the Erinyes go before Athena and a jury consisting of the Athenians at the Aeropause to decide whether Orestes' murder of his mother, Clytemnestra, makes him worthy of the torment they have inflicted upon him. “The murder of Agamemnon” by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin Orestes pursued by the Furies by William-Adolphe Bouguereau http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oresteia
Medea by Euripedes • the myth of Jason and Medea • Medea: A sorceress and a princess • Jason: Medea’s husband • Creon- The King of Corinth • Glauce- Daughter of Creon A statue of Euripides. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euripides http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medea
Character of Medea • Medea- Protagonist of the play Why, children, do you look upon me with your eyes? Why do you smile so sweetly that lst smile of all? Oh, oh, what can I do? My spirit has gone from me, Friends, when I saw that bright look in the children’s eyes. Icannot bear to do it. I renounce my plans I had before. I’ll tke my chieldren away from This land. Why should I hurt their father with the pain They fel, and suffer twice as much of pain myself? No, no, I will not do it. I renounce my plans. Ah, what is wrong with me ? Do I want to let go My enemies unhurt and be laughed at for it?
Sophocles as an Author • Birth: 496 BCE - 406 BCE • Works: Oedipusand Antigone are two most famous works known as The Oedipus Cycle. • For almost 50years, Sophocles was the most-awarded playwright in the dramatic competitions of ancient Athens http://z.about.com
Oedipus Trilogy • Oedipus the King:Throughout this mythic story of patricide and incest, Sophocles emphasizes the irony of a man determined to track down, expose, and punish an assassin, who turns out to be himself. • Oedipus at Colonus: the end of the tragic hero’s life and his mythic significance for Athens. • During the course of the play, Oedipus undergoes a transformation from an abject beggar, banished from his city because of his sins, into a figure of immense power, capable of extending (or withholding) divine blessings. • Antigone:the end of the Oedipus tragedy
The Oedipus the King http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/5185YCFP0NL._SL500_AA240_.jpg
Oedipus the King • Major Characters: • Oedipus- the protagonist of Oedipus the King and Oedipus at Colonus; king of Thebes • Jocasta- Oedipus's wife and mother, and Creon's sister • Laius- Oedipus’s father • Antigone- Child of Oedipus and Jocasta, and therefore both Oedipus's daughter and his sister • Creon- Oedipus's brother-in-law • Polynices- Son of Oedipus, and thus also his brother • Minor characters: • Tiresias- Tiresias, the blind soothsayer of Thebes • Ismene- Oedipus's daughter Ismene • Theseus- The king of Athens
Oedipus the King • Oedipus as an Ideal Tragic Hero • The power of fate • Sight and blindness http://personal.monm.edu/ysample/images/oedipus3.jpg
William Shakespeare as an Author • Birth: baptised 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616 • Works: 38 plays, 154 sonnets • Englishpoet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's preeminent dramatist; England's national poet • The autobiographical allusions in Shakespeare’s life is highly dubious. • Shakespeare’s authorship is sometimes disputed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakespeare
Shakespeare’s “Globe” fascinatinghistory.blogspot.com www.wimbledoncollege.org.uk shakespeare.palomar.edu
King Lear and Fool in a Storm www.booksshouldbefree.com/book.jsp?id=274 www.fromoldbooks.org
King Lear • Major Characters: • King Lear: The aging king of Britain • Cordelia: Lear’s youngest daughter, disowned by her father for refusing to flatter him • Edmund: Gloucester’s younger, illegitimate son. • Goneril: Lear’s ruthless oldest daughter and the wife of the duke of Albany • Albany- The husband of Lear’s daughter Goneril • Regan: Lear’s middle daughter and the wife of the duke of Cornwall • Cornwall- The husband of Lear’s daughter Regan • Gloucester- A nobleman loyal to King Lear • Edgar- Gloucester’s older, legitimate son
King Lear • Significant Ideas: • Justice • Authority versus Chaos • Madness and blindness • Betrayal
King Lear, (I.i.90–92 ) • Cordelia • "Unhappy that I am, I cannot heaveMy heart into my mouth. I love your majestyAccording to my bond; no more nor less ."
King Lear (V: 3) Re-enter KING LEAR, with CORDELIA dead in his arms; EDGAR, Captain, and others following KING LEAR Howl, howl, howl, howl! O, you are men of stones:Had I your tongues and eyes, I'ld use them soThat heaven's vault should crack. She's gone for ever!I know when one is dead, and when one lives;She's dead as earth. Lend me a looking-glass;If that her breath will mist or stain the stone,Why, then she lives.